Download sci-10-17-1 - St John Brebeuf

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Geomagnetic reversal wikipedia, lookup

Geomorphology wikipedia, lookup

Schiehallion experiment wikipedia, lookup

Geobiology wikipedia, lookup

Post-glacial rebound wikipedia, lookup

Geochemistry wikipedia, lookup

Spherical Earth wikipedia, lookup

History of Earth wikipedia, lookup

Nature wikipedia, lookup

Tectonic–climatic interaction wikipedia, lookup

History of geomagnetism wikipedia, lookup

Large igneous province wikipedia, lookup

Magnetotellurics wikipedia, lookup

History of geodesy wikipedia, lookup

Future of Earth wikipedia, lookup

History of geology wikipedia, lookup

Plate tectonics wikipedia, lookup

Age of the Earth wikipedia, lookup

Geology wikipedia, lookup

Geophysics wikipedia, lookup

Unit F: Plate Tectonics
Chapter 17+18
Layers of the Earth
The three main layers that make up Earth are
-The crust
The crust is up to 100 km thick
the mantle is about 3000 km thick
the core has a radius of about 3500 km.
The more dense layers(core) sink to the bottom
Outer most layer
Where we live!
Very thin compared to other layers
Made up of continental and oceanic crust (the rigid
rock of the continent and ocean floors)
B) The Mantle
There are 3 layers within the mantle.
1) beneath the crust is the solid outer mantle. Together with
the crust, this layer forms the rigid lithosphere
2) Asthenosphere: It is so hot and has so much pressure on
it from the lithosphere above that it behaves like a viscous
fluid, or soft plastic, even though it is solid mantle.
3) a dense inner layer of lower mantle
C) The Core
is the nearly spherical centre of Earth.
It has a radius of about 3500 km
2 distinct layers:
A) The outer core consists of liquid iron and nickel
B) the inner core is mostly very dense solid iron.
Finding Out About Earth’s Structure
Direct Observations
• Volcanoes provide scientists with one of the best ways to
directly observe Earth’s interior.
• Some volcanoes bring molten rock from deep within Earth’s
• Sampling ancient and fresh lava flows allows scientists to
compare the minerals in magma to other minerals in rock at or
near the surface
• Rock samples are also collected from holes drilled into Earth
for oil exploration or mining
Indirect Observations
Scientists use observations made at the surface of
Earth to make suggestions about the structures and
processes underground.
Measuring the magnetic field of layers of ancient lava flows
gives a record of the strength and direction of Earth’s
magnetic field over time. This record can then be compared
to measurements across the sea floor to make inferences
about the age of sea floor rock.
Measuring the local strength of gravity gives geologists
clues about the density of material below the surface
because denser rock increases the local gravity.
Dense rocks =
local gravity
Most Important methods
Modern Mapping
Mapping techniques allow scientists to plot the
locations of geologic formations such as volcanoes,
mountain ranges, lava flows, fossil beds, and ancient
oceans. New remote sensing technologies:
1- satellite and aerial photography record vast areas
2- global positioning system (GPS) receivers are used
to track very small movements of Earth’s crust
3- infrared and radar images are combined to
illustrate features not visible from Earth’s surface.
Page 496
1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11.
6.30 mins
Quick one 1.30 mins