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Teachers’ Notes OCR Ancient History AS level Roman History, Option 2 Augustus and the Principate Compiled by M.G.L. Cooley, Warwick School Alison Cooley, University of Warwick August, 2008. A rough schedule: Chronological overview (8 weeks) Topic 1 - The background, 753 – c.100 BC Topic 2 – Julius Caesar Topic 3 – 43-33 BC: the Triumviral period Topic 4 – 32-29 BC: Actium and aftermath Topic 5 – 28-24 BC – The early years of ‘Augustus’ Topic 6 – 23-12 BC ‘The golden age?’ Topic 7 – 12 BC – AD 14 - The succession (2 weeks) Source Methodology (8 weeks) Topic 8 – historical accounts Topic 9 – poetry Topic 10 – inscriptions Topic 11 – coins, art, architecture Themes (8 weeks) Topic 12: The Princeps and the People Topic 13: Religion Topic 14: Ruling the Empire Topic 15: The Army and the Frontiers Topic 16: Partners in Power I: Agrippa & Maecenas Topic 17: Partners in Power II: The Senate Topic 18: Partners in Power III: Family Topic 19: Opponents: Conspiracies, Scandals, Free Speech Revision (4 weeks) Topic 1 - The background, 753 – c.100 BC Exam topic This topic obviously does not form part of the syllabus, but would provide useful background. Key sources Tacitus, Annals 1.1 Other primary sources Livy, Preface Livy, book 1.4-16, especially 4, 6.4-7.3, and 15.6-16 (Romulus) Livy, book 1, 49-50 (Tarquin the Proud) Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities 1.72-2.56 (esp 2.56 for death of Romulus) [available online at Lacus Curtius] Key questions and debates Why was the name ‘Romulus’ suggested for Octavian and declined? Notes (It would be pointless to attempt to give any detail on what to do with classes in the first few lessons, since circumstances will vary so much from school to school. Some will even be able to assume that all their pupils have done Latin at some stage. Any or all groups may well want assurance of what the course is likely to contain, and of the relevance of doing ancient history! The teacher will obviously have to decide how they want to approach the first lesson. The JACT home page for teachers notes for ancient history provides some interesting suggestions http://www.jact.org/subjects/ancienthistoryres.htm ) At the very least some background is necessary to understand how the principate came about and the historical factors which influenced its development. This topic looks forward, to explain, for example, why Octavian was princeps, rather than king, and also why he took the ‘name’ Augustus, rather than Romulus (Suetonius, Augustus 7; Dio 53.16.7; recent excavations on the Palatine, apparently showing that Augustus’ house was situated directly above the site celebrated and sanctified as the wolf’s cave see http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/7104330.stm ). Augustus was very keenly aware of Roman history and traditions, and how they could be exploited. Livy was writing his monumental history of Rome throughout the Augustan period, and monuments to historical figures played a key role in Augustus’ Forum. Dionysius of Halicarnassus was also directly contemporary, as of course was Virgil’s Aeneid. Teaching ideas: The first few sentences of Tacitus’ Annals [1.1 = LACTOR Section F, page 83] would provide a very useful and source-based frame for a brief conspectus of Roman history, its democratic elements, and the reasons why Augustus preferred to be princeps rather than king or dictator. The very recent archaeological discoveries on the Palatine (see above) also give a wonderful example of Ancient History being anything but ancient history, showing how new discoveries are being made all the time, and can substantially change our knowledge and opinions in a way hardly possible for most periods of more modern history. Reading: Zanker, The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus, 201-215 on ‘the mythical foundations of the New Rome’. Mary Beard & Michael Crawford, Rome in the Late Republic (Duckworth, 1985) on the causes of the collapse of the Republican system. Le Glay, M., Voisin, J.-L., Le Bohec A History of Rome (Blackwell, 2nd or 3rd edns: 2001, 2005) ch.6 'Crisis of the Republic' Topic 2 – Julius Caesar Exam topic Again this topic is concerned with background to the exam syllabus, but is none the less important for that! Key sources Res Gestae, 1-2 Other primary sources Suetonius, Julius Caesar 40-89 (not, of course, the most reliable source, but easily accessible, good background to reading Suetonius, Augustus and covers most topics briefly) ‘Ides of March’ denarius (see below) Caesar’s heir aureus (LACTOR H2) Pliny, NH 2.94 (LACTOR H3) Key questions and debates ‘et te, o puer, qui omnia nomine debes’ ‘and you, boy, who owe everything to your name’ (Mark Antony, quoted by Cicero, Philippics 13.24). Notes Brief survey of complex process of collapse of Republic. By the mid-first century BC, a few individuals (Caesar, Pompey, Crassus) had become enormously wealthy, largely through spoils of conquest of vast overseas territories; armies increasingly loyal to them rather than the Senate (hope of booty and land on retirement, largely made up of landless former peasants who were alienated from the rest of society). Competition for power and prestige was an integral part of the republican system, but now both the rewards and the risks were higher, and the main players were no longer bound by any rules. Fierce rivalry between Pompey and Caesar, with the Senate caught in the middle; eventually Pompey decided to side with the Senate, whereupon Caesar crossed the Rubicon and marched on Rome in 49 BC. Defeated Pompey at Pharsalus in 48; having defeated other opponents, was appointed perpetual dictator in 44, introduced a wide range of legislation and was assassinated on 15th March that year. Most of the people, above all the army, were looking for a single leader to take Caesar’s place. General sense that autocracy was the only realistic option? Survey career of Augustus (referred to by historians as Octavian during his early years, until he adopted the name of Augustus in 27 BC). Born 63 BC in Rome; mother was Caesar’s niece, and so in 44 he inherited most of Caesar’s fortune and took his name. Only 18, and not much experience or reputation of his own, but could count on loyalty of many of Caesar’s troops, and lots of money to win support; initially fought Antony, then joined him in triumvirate (along with Lepidus) to defeat the assassins of Caesar and divide the empire between them. Teaching ideas: Source to open discussion: coin of Ides of March issued by the liberators. (Google Images ‘Ides of March Roman Coin’ etc will immediately give you lots of good images of the coin issued by Brutus to celebrate Julius Caesar’s assassination as liberating the people of Rome.) This coin is not on the syllabus, but is a very good one to introduce pupils to how to read Roman coins, since the iconography and legends are mostly very obvious. Start with very obvious questions – What is it? (coin) How can you tell? (coins are still that shape) What two main things do you expect there to be on a modern coin? (get them to get out a coin – picture and letters (often in Latin!) What do the images to right and left of centre show (daggers)? What is the second word and abbreviation of? (then AND NOW – March) Can you recognize the first word (without the E)? (Ides). Can you tell the story of the coin? What would you expect to find on the other side of the coin (technically the obverse)? Pupils will need help with the central image (= a pileus or ‘cap of liberty’ worn by slaves who had received their freedom), and the obverse having the name of the moneyer (i.e. the person in charge of the mint). Discussion could then move backwards into what else Julius Caesar is famous for, besides being assassinated, and could raise ideas such as: July The Julian calendar Kaiser / Tsar Dividing Gaul into three equal parts Reading: Syme, The Roman Revolution (1939), chapter IV Rawson, E. (1994) 'Caesar: Civil War and Dictatorship', in CAH IX (2nd edn) 424-67 Rawson, E. (1994) 'The aftermath of the Ides', in CAH IX (2nd edn) 468-90 http://www.virgil.org/caesar/ = Annotated guide to online resources Topic 3 – 43-33 BC: the Triumviral period Exam topic Strictly outside the exam syllabus, though several set texts are about this period. Obviously vital for understanding what happened afterwards! Key sources Res Gestae 1-3, 7, 25 Tacitus Annals 1.1-2, 1.9-10 Suetonius, Augustus 17, 27 Other primary sources ‘Laudatio Turiae’ inscription = LACTOR T37 LACTOR, H1-8 Virgil, Eclogue 1, 9 (LACTOR G1, G2) Horace, Epode 7 (LACTOR G3) Key questions and debates Why did Octavian need a name change? (not exactly a ‘debate’!) Notes The Laudatio Turiae gives the most extraordinarily vivid, personal and ‘female-centred’ view of the horrors of the period. It is a huge funerary inscription, from 8/2 BC in Rome, now only surviving in substantial fragments. It reads as if recording the eulogy declaimed for a deceased noblewoman by her husband. The inscription commemorates her extraordinary feats during the triumviral period, when her parents were murdered, her inheritance disputed, her husband exiled and his property subject to looting. The inscription also provides fascinating evidence for the role expected of a woman (T37c) but also how a woman might break these boundaries, and it provides a very touching picture of love and marriage. It might also provide female interest (not, though, actually a female view) for a male-dominated topic. ‘Turia’ is only a conjectural name for the deceased. Reading Syme, The Roman Revolution (1939), chapters 8-9, 14, 17-8, 20 C. Pelling, ‘The triumviral period’, in CAH X. Teaching ideas: A good chance to introduce inscriptions as a key source of evidence, via the Laudatio Turiae, which though obviously exceptional, provides a good starting-point. Its structure seems simple and easy to relate to – a narrative, apparently based on, or recording, a funeral eulogy. It is, as often, fragmentary (and note convention of [ ] for words or phrases that have to be supplied). ‘Laudatio Turiae’ on Google Images instantly supplies plenty of pictures of what it looks like Topic 4 – 32-29 BC: Actium and aftermath Exam topic Actium and the aftermath of civil war Key sources Actium G38 – Virgil Aeneid 8.675-728 G5 – Horace Epodes 9; G39 – Propertius, Elegies 4.6 Suetonius 17-18 Spolia opima Livy 4.20.5-8 and 4.20.11 (LACTOR P4) Other primary sources Actium Cassius Dio 51.1-15 on the aftermath of Actium. Horace, Epodes7; Odes 1.2, 1.37, 2.1. H9-17 – various sources on the aftermath D2 – Summary of Livy book 133 - 31-29 BC N4-6 various coins Opposition P2, Vell 2.88 – M. Lepidus (son) plots assassination N 50, P3-4 – M. Licinius Crassus & the spolia opima Key questions and debates How did Augustus become sole ruler of the Roman empire? What were the main problems facing him in the aftermath of the civil wars? How is his triumph presented by the sources? What don’t they say about it? Notes Fourteen years of rivalry and intermittent reconciliations culminated with Antony divorcing Octavian’s sister to marry Cleopatra and the accusation from Octavian that he was planning to move the capital of the empire to Alexandria. Antony’s fleet defeated at Actium in 31; Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt, where they committed suicide when Octavian arrived in 30. Portrayal of Actium as victory of Romans over barbarians, above all Cleopatra as symbol of decadence and un-Roman values (note that Antony is scarcely visible); not shown as a victory of Romans over Romans. Importance of gods, and Apollo in particular; Octavian as divinely proclaimed saviour of city. Problems faced by Octavian/Augustus: most obviously, how to establish supreme authority in a state with a lengthy tradition of hostility to the mere idea of kingship, avoiding the fate of Caesar. Need to establish peace, deal with remaining enemies, reward soldiers, allies and supporters. According to Octavian and his supporters, at least, also need to restore traditional values, respect for the gods and so forth; how far is this propaganda to justify his seizure of power? Desire to establish himself as a significant military commander, including his triple triumph, but this almost spoiled by M. Licinius Crassus claiming the spolia opima. Teaching ideas: This time one could start with poetry, Aeneid 8.675-698, if possible, giving just this section out of context (ending at ‘waiting at her back.’). Pupils to work out what type of literature this is, how we know, what ‘facts’ are presented here. The rest of the passage can then be presented, with great concentration on the gods: how does this affect our appreciation of the passage as history? Overall context (shield of Aeneas) will also need some explanation (LACTOR notes pp 142-3). Reading Wallace-Hadrill, chapter 1; Wells, chapters I and III; Syme, The Roman Revolution (1939), chapter 21. Zanker, P. (1988) The Power of Images ch.3 Topic 5 – 28-24 BC – The early years of ‘Augustus’ Exam topic The ‘constitutional settlement’ of 28/7 BC and the powers and roles adopted by Augustus or given to others Main events and Sources (exam sources in bold, other in normal) 28 Census of senate RG 8.2; Vell 89.4 28/7 Constitutional settlement RG 34; Aureus 28 BC–H18 and honours for Augustus Aureus 27 BC–H21 H19 & M2 – Strabo 17.3.25; Suet 28; Suet 47; Suet 53-7; Vell 89.3; Lactor H20-25; Cassius Dio 52.1-42; 53.2-10, 17-19; 56.43-4 27 Jan 16 Octavian “Augustus” RG 34.2, Lactor H22-3 27-25 Aug in Gaul & Spain RG 12.2; Lactor D4, G29, M15-16, N48-49 25 Closing of Gates of Janus RG 13; Lactor K47-49 25-24 Expeditions to Arabia & RG 26.5; N34 – Strabo 17.1.34; Lactor Ethiopia N18-22; Dio 53.29; Lactor N33-35; Dio 54.5.4-6 Other key sources - Military Horace, Odes 3.5 Virgil, Aeneid 1.257-296 Virgil, Aeneid 6.789-806, 847-853 Key questions and debates Why is it misleading to claim that Augustus portrayed himself as having ‘restored the Republic’? How does his account of the political settlement compare with those of other sources? How does the whole issue of the ‘Augustan settlement’ get obscured by the lack of contemporary sources, and the dubious benefit of hindsight in authors like Cassius Dio and Tacitus? What was the constitutional basis of Augustus’ authority? Why was he so keen to emphasise it in his RG? War and Peace? What were Augustus’ military objectives and how were these presented? Notes Res publica does not mean Republic in a constitutional sense, but ‘the state’. Augustus was claiming to restore normality of government, distancing himself from the illegal actions of the triumvirate, but not to be restoring a political system. No pre-existing system, and clearly no set plan: Octavian gradually developed his role, drawing on and reworking Roman traditions, titles and institutions. Needed to appeal to different audiences: the army and (to some extent) the people, who seem to have wanted a strong ruler, and the traditional aristocracy, who were much more sensitive to anything which looked like ‘tyranny’. For the first few years, Octavian held the consulship every year; he also ensured that he was nominated as princeps senatus in the census of 28 BC, giving him primacy in the senate. Moreover, he could rely on the support of the army and the urban plebs who had previously supported Caesar, and was able to build up a strong group of supporters among the new nobles whom he had promoted to replace the old senatorial families. Note the evidence for generous handouts of grain and money to the people of Rome during the crucial years following Actium. 28-27 BC: according to Octavian, he ‘transferred the republic from my power to the control of the senate and people of Rome’. Accepted title of ‘Augustus’ and a range of other honours; held the consulship every year, and a special proconsulship giving him command of Gaul, Spain and Syria. In other respects, normality supposedly restored:, Augustus took traditional oath to attest that he had acted properly as consul, and handed over the fasces to his consular colleague in alternate months; elections to magistracies were held. Reading Rich, Augustan Settlement, pp. 23-35 and 43-9 covers Dio 53 Good discussion of Augustus’ constitutional position in. Wallace-Hadrill, chapter 2;; Syme, The Roman Revolution (1939), chapter 22. Zanker, The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus, 89-100 Millar, ‘State and subject’ and Yavetz, ‘The Res Gestae and Augustus’ private image’, in Millar & Segal, Caesar Augustus: seven aspects. J.A. Crook, ‘Augustus: power, authority, achievement’, in CAH X. Gruen ch.2, in Galinsky Cambridge Companion to Age of Augustus. Topic 6 – 23-12 BC ‘The golden age?’ Exam topic Events & Sources 23 Aug powers changed and refined; trib pot; imperium maius 23 after 1 Aug 22-19 Aug in East 21 20 Return of standards from Parthia 18 17 MayJune Centennial Games 17 Aug adopts Gaius & Lucius (probably later than Centennial Gs) Cinna’s plot to assassinate Aug Drusus & Tiberius campaign in Alps 16 15-4 13, July 4th 12 Ara pacis decreed Aug pontifex maximus Agrippa proconsular RG 10.1, 6.2, 34.3; imperium Tac. Ann. 2.43 (H42), Tac. Ann. 3.56 (H26) Suet 27; Tac. Ann. 1.2.1; 1.9.2; Death of Marcellus RG 21.1; Vir. Aen 6; Vell 93.1; Lactor J3132 RG 11; Aureus 19 BC = L9 Agrippa marries Suet 63; Tac. Ann. Julia 3.1; Vell 93.1-2 RG 29.2; Lactor K19, N41-4 Agrippa trib pot Aureus of 13 BC = T13 Denarius of 13 BC = H27 RG 22.2; Aureus 16 BC=L26; L28 – Horace centennial hymn RG 14.1; Suet 64; Tac. Ann. 3.2 Death of Agrippa P11 – Seneca, Clemency 1.9.2-12 RG 26.3; Aureus 1512 BC = N15; Vell 95.1-2; G44 – Hor. Odes 4.14; Lactor N14 RG 12.2 RG 7.3, 10,2; Suet 31; Lactor H28-32 Key questions and debates What did (or did not) happen in 23 BC and were these events cause or effect? How significant was Augustus’ life-threatening illness, followed closely by Marcellus’ death? [NB this question is, of course, in no way capable of anything approaching a definitive answer, since there is complete disagreement by modern experts!] In what various ways did Augustus seek to convince the senate, people, soldiers and provincials that they had never had it so good? Notes From 23, Augustus no longer held the consulship every year (only taking the consulship briefly at the start of the years in which his grandsons, Gaius and Lucius came of age (5 BC and 2 BC). He was granted tribunician power, giving him, among other things, the right to introduce legislation and to veto any other legislation. It is essential to appreciate that he held tribunician power separately from the office of tribune of the plebs, continuing a pattern whereby he held powers without the actual office. As the name of the office implied, the tribunes of the plebs had a particular role in defending the ordinary people from abuses of power by (senatorial) magistrates. Reading Syme, The Roman Revolution (1939), chapter 23. Zanker, The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus chapter 5, 167-192. Much of the reading mentioned for the topic above on the constitution is also relevant to changes in 23 BC. Teaching ideas An ambitious but valuable approach to this period, and to ancient history, could go straight to the frustration and fascination of the subject – the whole question of reliability of evidence. The standard Latin text of documents for the period (Ehrenberg & Jones, Documents Illustrating the Reigns of Augustus and Tiberius, Oxford 1976) prints the following text: (Aug. I) [imp.] Caesar divi f. C. n. Augustus XI abd. in eius loc. factus est [L. Sestius P. f. L. n.] Quirin. [Albin.] A. T[erentius A. f. ? n. Var]ro Murena [in mag. damn.] est, in e. l. f. e. [Cn. Calpurn]ius Cn. f. Cn. n. Pis[o] [imp. Caesar divi f. C. n. Augustus posteaquam consu]latu se abdicavit, tri[b. pot. accepit] [Imperator] Caesar Augustus resigned and in his place [L. Sestius] Quirinalis [Albinus] was made consul. A. T[erentius Var]ro Murena [was condemned during his magistracy], in his place [Cn. Calpurn]ius Piso [Imperator Caesar Augustus after] he resigned the [consu]lship [received] tri[bunician power. But beware the square brackets! These actually show that the words or letters bracketed do not survive, but have been restored by a modern editor. How reliably / certainly? [imp.] line 1 – absolutely certain, as it is effectively a part of Augustus’ name, included on almost every coin/inscription. [L. Sestius P. f. L. n.] Quirin. [Albin.] – seems far less obvious, but in fact Quirinalis is mentioned in a variety of other literary and epigraphic sources (e.g. M27, p.287, penultimate line). [in mag. damn.] – this is completely unparalleled if right, and in some senses intrinsically unlikely - a bit like a school honours board recording – ‘Joe Bloggs was expelled for taking drugs in his year as head boy’. The gap in the stone could equally well be filled with Latin meaning ‘died before taking office’, for which parallels are available. Topic 7 – 12 BC – AD 14 - The succession Exam topic The role of the emperor’s family, friends and supporters Sources and events (bold for prescribed texts) 12-9 Drusus & Tiberius campaign in Germany & Pannonia, with imperium from 11 BC 11 Tiberius marries Julia 9 Jan 30 Ara pacis dedicated Drusus dies 8 Month of Sextilis renamed Death of Maecenas ‘August’ 8-7 Tiberius campaigns in Germany 6 Tib trib pot; withdraws to Rhodes 5 Gaius Caesar comes of age 2 Feb 5 Augustus pater patriae 2 Julia exiled for adultery 1 Gaius m Livilla; goes on expedition to the East AD 2 Aug 20 4 Feb 21 4 June 26/7 6 6-9 8 9 10-12 13 April 3 14 Aug 19 Lucius Caesar dies Gaius Caesar dies Aug adopts Agrippa Tiberius adopts Postumus and Tiberius, who Germanicus is granted powers. Agrippa disowned and exiled Revolt in Pannonia Banishment of Julia the younger for adultery Varus disaster Tib campaigns in Germany Aug writes his will Death of Augustus; death of Agrippa Postumus Accession of Tiberius RG 26.2-4, 30; Tac. Ann. 3.1 Suet 63 RG 12.2; Lactor J43-47 Suet 31; Lactor H35-6 RG 26.2-4; Vell 97-98 Vell 99.1-4; Lactor J37-8, J40 RG 14; J56 – inscr. From Sardis RG 35.1; Suet 58; Lactor H38, K28, M20 Vell 100.3-5; LACTOR P12-15; Suet 65; Lactor J48 RG 27.2; Lactor J57 RG 14; Vell 102.3; Suet 65; Tac. Ann. 3.3; Lactor J64-5 RG 14; Vell 102.2-3; Suet 65; Tac. Ann. 3.3; Lactor J59-62 Suet 65; Tac. Ann. 3.3, 3.5; Lactor J41-42, J66, J67-68 Lactor J55 RG 26.2 Vell 123.2 Also (see tables in previous topic): Adoption of Gaius & Lucius in 17 BC; Agrippa’s share in Centennial Games 17 BC Key questions and debates When does it become evident that Augustus is preparing a successor to his position? Who is his first ‘heir apparent’? How are Drusus and Tiberius treated differently from the heirs presumptive Gaius and Lucius; and how does this change for Tiberius in AD 4? How is Agrippa’s partnership with Augustus different too? How does Augustus’ complicated family situation create the potential for intrigue and faction? Notes The perception that Marcellus was being groomed as Augustus’ successor may be primarily the result of the hindsight of later sources like Tacitus and Dio. Agrippa was, from the early years, Augustus’ crucial right-hand man and partner in power. Gaius and Lucius were, from 17 BC, prepared as heirs presumptive, and contemporary sources like Ovid Ars Am. 1, Sardis inscription for Gaius’ coming-of-age, and Pisan honorific decrees clearly reflect this. Drusus and Tiberius were useful militarily, but Tiberius only emerged as potential heir in AD 4 with the deaths of Gaius and Lucius. As in many other respects, Augustus had to adapt his plans over time. The real issues in this period concern the scandals (and possible conspiracies) within Augustus’ family, regarding the succession. These can also be dealt with below in the topic on conspiracies and scandals. By 12 BC, Augustus had turned 50 and had already outlived his exact contemporary, Agrippa. He was, as it happened, to outlive his two older grandsons too. The public reaction to the deaths of Lucius and the Gaius is very revealing of how the empire has already come to expect a hereditary monarchy. But if this idea is now a given, and any other sort of constitution or succession is unthinkable, at least to the people and provincials, there are clearly rival factions or branches within the family, still represented by Augustus’ wives (ages at start of 2 BC). The bitterness can still be seen in how Velleius (partisan of Tiberius) describes members of Julia’s family. Scribonia’s family Scribonia (Augustus’ first wife) – aged 68 Her daughter Julia (Augustus’ only child, now married to Tiberius) – aged 36 Julia’s son, Gaius (aged 17) Julia’s son Lucius (aged 14) Julia’s son Agrippa Postumus (aged 10) Julia’s daughter, Julia (the younger, aged 15, married) Julia’s daughter Agrippina (aged 11) Livia’s family Livia (Augustus’ second & ‘current’ wife) - aged 55 Livia’s son by Tiberius Claudius Nero, Tiberius (aged 39) Livia’s grandson, Drusus (aged 10) (son of Tiberius & his first wife, Vipsania) Livia’s other son, Drusus, Tiberius’ brother, dies in 9 BC Livia’s daughter-in-law, Antonia (Mark Antony’s daughter, Augustus’ niece) Livia’s grandson, Germanicus (aged 14) son of Drusus & Antonia Livia’s grandson, Claudius (aged 7) son of Drusus & Antonia Livia’s granddaughter, Livilla (aged 11) daughter of Drusus & Antonia Attempts to unite the families had been made with Julia’s marriage to Tiberius (11 BC) and were made with Gaius’ marriage to Livilla (AD 1). The death of Augustus’ exact contemporary and partner in powers, Agrippa in 12 BC must have further reminded Augustus and all around him of his own mortality. Tiberius and Drusus were well placed to take on Agrippa’s role, not least as Augustus’ most reliable military commander. Yet by 6 BC, Livia seemed to have lost the struggle between her sons (Drusus (now dead) & Tiberius) and the sons of Julia, Gaius and Lucius Caesar, Augustus’ own grandsons, soon to come of age, and marked out for huge public and personal honours. Hence Tiberius’ withdrawal to Rhodes. Julia’s adultery seems not in doubt, the real question is probably why it became such a huge issue in 2 BC, and whether the real issue was more political than moral (Iullus Antonius, son of Marc Antony, was condemned for adultery with Julia entailing designs on the principate). Gaius and Lucius do not seem to have been politically affected by their mother’s disgrace. Their deaths are most convenient to, but not brought about by, Livia and Tiberius. Even then, Tiberius does not have a clear run, being adopted as Augustus’ son, alongside Agrippa Postumus and forced in turn to adopt his nephew, Germanicus, when his own son, Drusus was also of age. Julia’s children finally lose the power struggle with the disowning and exile of Agrippa Postumus in AD 6, a failed conspiracy by Aemilius Paullus, aristocrat and husband of Julia the Younger in AD 6 or 8, and the exile for adultery of Julia the Younger in AD 8. The truth or otherwise of a possible reconciliation with Agrippa Postumus shortly before Augustus’ death, and whether his murder was ordered by Augustus, Tiberius or Livia is beyond recovery. Reading Zanker, P. Power of Images pp.215-30 Millar, F. and Segal, E. Caesar Augustus. Seven Aspects (Oxford: 1984) (chap. by Bowersock) Levick, B. Tiberius the Politician (1976 & 1999) chaps. 1-5 Eck, ch.14; Fantham, Julia Augusti the Emperor’s Daughter, chapters 7-9. Teaching ideas: The ‘What If’ type of history might fruitfully be employed here. For example, since Augustus was known for his poor health (at least until middle age!), and life expectancy was far lower than what he achieved, what would or might have happened had he died suddenly of natural causes in a random year (give pupils a range to consider individually/in pairs, etc.) Topic 8 - Source methodology I: historical accounts a) Tacitus’ Annals Ronald Syme, Tacitus (OUP, 1958), Parts V and VI; Ronald Martin, Tacitus (Batsford, 1981), chapters II, V, X. Cooley, RG commentary, introduction section on Tacitus and RG. Written some time in the early second century, looking back over the Julio-Claudian dynasty; not known if it was ever finished, and certainly a substantial part is missing. Tacitus had held various political offices under Vespasian, Titus and Domitian; he writes as a member of the senatorial class, lamenting the loss of libertas under the Principate. His claims to write impartially have often been taken at face value, but he tends to offer, or more often hint darkly at, the most discreditable interpretation of any particular event. A recurring theme is the contrast between appearance and reality under the Principate, the all-pervading flattery and ‘double-speak’ that he regards as endemic in an autocracy. The Annals begins not with Augustus but with Tiberius — clearly a serious authorial decision — but it includes a brief survey of his rise to power and a more detailed account of the immediate aftermath of his death, including summaries of the different estimations of Augustus which Tacitus claims were in circulation. Key Questions Compare Tacitus’ account of Augustus’ rise to power and the nature of his claim to authority with Augustus’ own account in the Res Gestae. How does Tacitus characterise the nature of politics under the Principate? What can we tell of Tacitus’ own political opinions from this passage? b) Suetonius’ Divus Augustus Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, Suetonius (Duckworth, 1983) and Catharine Edwards, ‘At home with Augustus’, Omnibus 24 (1992). Written around the same time as Tacitus’ Annals, though Suetonius was younger. He had held office under Trajan, as ‘secretary of studies’ and director of the imperial libraries, and under Hadrian was in charge of the imperial correspondence until dismissed in 122 for disrespectful behaviour towards the empress. He did therefore have access to the imperial archives, and made use of them in composing biographies of the twelve emperors up to Domitian. Suetonius tends to offer a summary of the ancestry of each emperor, an account of their rise to power (including the portents which predicted it), an account of their major activities while emperor, and a large quantity of ‘anecdotal’ evidence on their character and habits, including eating, sexual behaviour and physical appearance. Arguably, this reflects the nature of politics under the principate; the focus was now on the likes, dislikes and whims of an all-powerful autocrat, and so every scrap of information about their behaviour might be relevant. It is also related to the assumption common to ancient biographical writings (in contrast to modern ones) that true character is fixed, and revealed in personal habits as much as in public acts. Key Questions How does Suetonius’ account of Augustus’ political position compare with those of Tacitus and Augustus himself? What can we deduce of Suetonius’ own opinion of Augustus? Is Augustus portrayed as a sympathetic character? achievements? What are seen to be his major Compare Suetonius’ and Tacitus’ accounts of the struggle for the succession. Topic 9 - Source methodology II: Poetry Initial reading: Poetry as Historical Source Material (B.W.J.G. Wilson’s introduction to his translations of the poems included in LACTOR 17 (pages 95-6); Griffin, J. in Caesar Augustus. Seven Aspects, eds Millar and Segal (1984); Griffin and White in Galinsky Cambridge Companion. a) Virgil’s Aeneid Copious bibliography, inevitably. For introductory reading, see; Galinsky, Augustan Culture, pp. 246-53; and K.W. Gransden, Virgil: The Aeneid (CUP, 1990). More detailed studies, particularly focusing on the political aspects, include: A. Powell, ‘The Aeneid and the embarrassments of Augustus’ in Powell, ed., Roman Poetry and Propaganda; E.L. Harrison and T.P. Wiseman in Woodman & West, eds, Poetry and Politics; H.P. Stahl in Raaflaub & Toher, eds, Between Republic and Principate; papers in Hans-Peter Stahl, Vergil’s Aeneid: Augustan epic and political context (Duckworth, 1998); papers in Charles Martindale, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Virgil (CUP, 1997), esp. Tarrant and Zetzel. Begun a year or so after Actium, and never properly revised; the Life of Virgil claims that he asked on his deathbed for it to be burned, but his executors published it on Augustus’ instructions. The great poem of the Romans, charting the struggles of Aeneas after his escape from Troy, following his destiny to found Rome. Aeneas can be seen as the archetypal hero, overcoming barbarism on behalf of civilisation and demonstrating such heroic and Roman qualities as pietas — although some scholars have found the characterisation unconvincing, and attributed this to Virgil’s inability to subordinate his poetic gifts to the purposes of propaganda. The poem includes several passages (the prescribed texts for this unit) which prophesy the future greatness of the settlement which Aeneas is to found, culminating in the reign of Augustus; several scholars, however, argue that the poem as a whole undercuts these eulogistic elements, especially in the second half, which is felt to express scepticism about the prospects for any new ‘golden age’ of peace and virtue. One might compare the apparently blatant propaganda of these passages in the Aeneid with Virgil’s more complicated approach to Augustus in Eclogue 1, which offers two contrasting views of the actions of the young Octavian: has Virgil simply sold out in his later years, or is he recognising the realities of literary production under an autocrat while still trying to express his own views? Key Questions How does Virgil portray Augustus and his role in these passages? individuality or personality, or is he merely a symbol of Rome? Is he given Discuss Virgil’s depiction of the battle of Actium. What doesn’t he show? In what ways do these passages express the ideals of the Romans in general and of the Augustan regime in particular? ‘Virgil was lucky in that Augustus was indeed a formidably great figure in Roman history: imagine how different the poem would feel if it had been written for Claudius or Nero’ (Jenkyns). Discuss. b) Horace’s Odes David West, Horace Odes 1: Carpe Diem: text, translation and commentary (OUP, 1995), offers interesting comments on 1.2 and 1.37. See also Steele Commager, the Odes of Horace: a critical study (Yale UP, 1962), chapter IV. Lyne, R.O.A.M. (1995) Horace behind the public poetry, espec. ch.1-4, 7, 11-12 offers thought-provoking analysis particularly of ‘pro-Augustan’ odes in Book 4. Many of the selected poems deal with similar material to the Carmen Saeculare, describing the new era which has been inaugurated by Augustus (3.14, 4.5, 4.15) or showing the decadent state of Roman society which is calling out to Augustus for salvation and restoration (1.2, 3.6). Several poems celebrate Augustus’ victories, over the Parthians (3.5) and over Cleopatra (1.37). Some poems make use of religious imagery, apparently blurring the distinction between man and god: a conscious strategy, or a reflection of the difficulties Horace, like Virgil, was having in developing an appropriate language for praise of the emperor? Key Questions Compare Horace’s description of the defeat of Cleopatra with that of Virgil. Horace’s Cleopatra clearly becomes a sympathetic character, almost a heroine, towards the end of the poem: does this subvert the Augustan message, or reinforce it? How does Horace depict the state of Roman society before the advent of Augustus? How does he emphasise that Rome needs such a saviour? How is Augustus depicted by Horace? What can we tell of the ideals of the Augustan regime from these poems? Is Horace only a mouthpiece for Augustan ideology? Compare the tone of the Carmen Saeculare, commissioned by the regime, with the other odes. Topic 10 - Source methodology III: Inscriptions Augustus’ Res Gestae Cooley (2009) offers a much more wide-ranging analysis than Brunt and Moore. See also Zvi Yavetz, ‘The Res Gestae and Augustus’ public image’, in F. Millar & E. Segal, eds, Caesar Augustus: seven aspects (OUP, 1984), and the discussion in the Oxford Classical Dictionary (3rd edn, eds S. Hornblower & A. Spawforth, OUP, 1996), p. 1309. Augustus’ own statement of his achievements, written in the final months of his reign. Found as an inscription attached to the temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia; fragments found at other sites in the region; originally planned by Augustus to be set up outside his Mausoleum. Highly significant, both for what it emphasises (restoration, consensus, tradition; honours bestowed by the community, record of benefactions, military achievements) and for what it leaves out or plays down. An interesting perspective on Augustus’ constitutional position in particular. According to one historian, ‘the document illustrates very well the speciously libertarian traditionalism which Tacitus so deftly punctures in the opening chapters of the Annals.’ On the other hand, Tacitus’ account is equally partial and extremely cynical. It’s worth considering the different audiences for this text, some of whom may have been happy to accept it at face value; certainly its appeal to traditional Roman values is not merely a sham, masking pure domination. The fact that the text was published posthumously may also make a difference to our reading and our understanding of how its original readers may have reacted to it; by the end of Augustus’ life, few others could remember the circumstances of his rise to power or the early years of his reign, and readers might equally be influenced by the comparison with his successor Tiberius. Key questions What are the most obvious problems in using the Res Gestae as a historical source? What achievements does Augustus emphasise most strongly? What aspects of his reign does he omit or play down? How are the civil wars depicted? Discuss the ways in which Augustus presents himself as the saviour of Rome and the restorer of its traditions. How far was this actually true? How does Augustus present his constitutional position? Who was the intended audience of the Res Gestae, and what was its intended purpose? Teaching Ideas: There is clearly no substitute for reading this text through with a class! But the more pupils can get used to the idea of political spin in contemporary politics, the better. Pupils might enjoy turning parts of the RG into a radio/TV interview between Augustus and John Humphreys (or even Tacitus!) Topic 11 - Source methodology IV: Coins, Art, Architecture Key sources: The coins on the syllabus; Ara Pacis; Prima Porta statue; Gemma augustea; forum Augustum; Mausoleum; forum Romanum; via Labicana Augustus statue. Other sources: Other Augustan coins illustrated in LACTOR 17 and Zanker Reading: Augustus and the Coinage LACTOR 17, pages 12-15 Zanker, The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus, 53-7 et elsewhere Howgego, C. (1995) Ancient History from Coins pp.67-87 A. Wallace-Hadrill, 'Image and authority in the coinage of Augustus', JRS 76 (1986) 66-87 Elsner, J. (1995) Art and the Roman Viewer ch.5 (for Prima Porta) Wallace-Hadrill, A. Augustan Rome Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. X – chapter 15 Eck (2003) The Age of Augustus – chapter 13 Karl Galinsky (1996) Augustan Culture: an interpretive introduction – ch. 4, 5 Key questions and debates What can coins tell us that is different/additional/more reliable to/than other sources? Who was responsible for coin design? And does this matter? How does Augustus’ family attain unprecedented prominence in official media? What picture of Augustus’ conception of his place in Roman society and history emerges from the design of the forum Augustum? What picture of Augustus as leader of Rome emerges from his depiction in art? How does the ara Pacis encapsulate the idea of the promised golden age? Themes (12 weeks) Topic 12: The Princeps and the People Exam topic Augustus’ relationship to the senate, soldiers, plebs and provincials Key sources Res Gestae Heading, 3, 15, 18, 22-3, Appendix 1,4 Suetonius 28-30, 41-5 Key questions and debates Why was popular support important to Augustus, and how did he go about winning it? Notes Importance of popular support; legitimised Augustus’ claim to be the saviour of the empire and the protector of the plebs (a role particularly associated with tribunician power). He benefited from popular protests when he attempted to resign power, and was begged to become dictator in certain times of crisis (e.g. food shortage): a clear reminder to the senate and to any rivals of his own importance in holding the empire together and keeping the peace. This was gratifying and valuable, but also clearly risky; if he failed to satisfy plebs, they might look elsewhere for help (as seen in the popularity of Egnatius Rufus for organising a fire brigade). Keeping the people happy. Lavish entertainments — which the emperor makes sure he is seen to enjoy (note emphasis on games in both Res Gestae and Suetonius). Handouts of grain and money; various measures taken to improve the corn supply, including the introduction of an official with specific responsibility for this; improvements in other public services (aqueducts, fire brigade, reorganisation of city). In the circus and theatre in particular this can be seen as symbolic exchange, the crowd giving him applause and acclamation in recognition of his generosity; also an opportunity for the people to make views known, especially in times of food shortage. Augustus also made use of the stick: urban cohorts, vigiles, praetorian guard. Augustus’ building programme does not really belong in the exam specification for the AS level, since it forms a central part of the A2 topic (Option 2: The invention of imperial Rome 31 BC – AD 96) Buildings programme: Augustus claims to have found a Rome of brick and left it one of marble. In fact, most buildings continued to be brick, or concrete faced with brick, but of higher quality, and many important public buildings were faced in marble. Restored a number of key buildings, particularly temples and the Roman Forum (introducing various buildings glorifying his own family, including a new temple of Divus Iulius). Constructed his own Forum, full of statues of heroic Romans; constructed monuments in Campus Martius such as meridian line, Ara Pacis and own mausoleum. Can all be seen as a campaign of visual propaganda, emphasising the ideals of the regime (restoration, tradition, piety, family etc.); similar themes appear in coinage. But we need to ask questions about the audience for this propaganda — would the mass of the population understand the significance of all this symbolism? — and about its impact. Buildings can be ‘read’ in different ways: Augustus’ mausoleum was apparently intended to emphasise his links to Rome, in contrast to Antony’s wish to be buried in Alexandria, but it could also be seen as evidence of his dynastic ambitions. His new Forum celebrated Rome’s past, at the same time as it sidelined the traditional centre of power and politics, the Forum Romanum, as well as the temple of Mars the Avenger supplanting Capitoline Jupiter in several ways. Reading Zvi Yavetz, Plebs and Princeps (OUP, 1969), esp. 103-29 and 130-40; Wallace-Hadrill, chapter 4, on Augustus’ activities in Rome. Thomas Wiedemann, Emperors and Gladiators (Routledge, 1992) on the importance of the games (and the emperor’s presence at the games). Paul Zanker, The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (U of Michigan, 1988), on buildings, coins and statues working as propaganda. Cooley commentary on chapters in RG. Topic 13: Religion Exam topic The imperial cult does not belong in the exam specification for the AS level, since it forms a central part of the A2 topic (Option 2: The invention of imperial Rome 31 BC – AD 96). However religion is clearly part of ‘powers and roles adopted by Augustus’ and is also pertinent to ‘Augustus’ relationship to the senate, soldiers, plebs and provincials’. In addition, Horace’s Centennial Hymn (Carmen Saeculare) is on the prescription, as are many sources relating directly to Augustus and emperor-worship. Key sources Res Gestae 7.3, 9-12, 19-21 Horace Odes 3.6 Horace Carmen Saeculare (L28) Ovid, Fasti 3.415-428 Augustus pontifex maximus (12 BC) Ovid, Fasti 5.140-158 worship of the genius (divine spirit) of Aug Quintilian, Orator’s Education 6.3.77 Aug unimpressed by a ‘miracle’ Suetonius 31 Vitruvius, On Architecture 5.1.7 The Temple of Augustus at Fanum Key sources - Inscriptions LACTOR L11 Votive games celebrating Aug’s return, 13 BC LACTOR L12 Introduction of cult of Augustan Lares at Rome, ? 7 BC LACTOR L13 Temple of Aug at Puteoli LACTOR L17 Altar to numen of Aug, AD 12-3, Narbonne LACTOR H34 New Calendar for Asia, based on Aug’s birthday Coins LACTOR L1 Symbols of four priesthoods held by Augustus LACTOR L9 Altar of Fortuna Redux LACTOR L10 Public vows for Augustus’ safety LACTOR L26 Augustus distributes suffimenta for ludi saeculares Other primary sources Sources in LACTOR section L, especially inscriptions about the Centennial Games (L27) The passages prescribed from Virgil, Aeneid all more or less explicitly portray Augustus as an instrument of divine will. Horace Odes 1.2, 3.14, Suetonius 6, 31, 90-3; Ovid Fasti 1.1-26 Key questions and debates Was Roman religion in decline in the late republic? Did Augustus’ activities make any significant difference? How did Augustus ostensibly ‘revive’ traditions, whilst introducing striking innovations? Discuss the importance of the development of ruler cult in the empire. Reading Beard, North & Price Volume II contains most relevant sources on Roman religion. Wallace-Hadrill, chapters 5-6; Garnsey & Saller, The Roman Empire, chapter 9. Mary Beard, John North & Simon Price, Religions of Rome (CUP, 1998), especially chapter 4; Simon Price, ‘The place of religion’, CAH X; Karl Galinsky, Augustan Culture: an interpretative introduction (Princeton UP, 1996), chapter VI. The state of religion in the late republic is discussed clearly and concisely in Beard & Crawford, Rome in the Late Republic, chapter 3. Zanker, The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus, 101-135; Scheid ch.8 in Galinsky Companion Notes Traditional picture of the decline of religion in the late republic: neglect of temples (since Augustus needed to restore so many), the spread of rationalism (seen in the writings of Cicero), the influx of foreign cults, a general lack of belief aggravated and seen in the cynical manipulation of religion for political purposes. Thus a clear need for Augustus to save the situation; he emphasises this role in Res Gestae, stressing his restoration and construction of temples and his concern for traditional religion and values, and it is echoed in the works of Horace. Decline exaggerated: Roman religion always political (ritual central to state and priests drawn from ruling class — and this continues in Principate), foreign cults regularly absorbed, and the concern of a minority anyway; as for rationalism, we can hardly take Cicero’s views as typical of the majority of Romans. No way of knowing how much restoration the temples actually needed, and clearly it was in Augustus’ interests to exaggerate decline so as to magnify his own role as saviour and restorer. Certainly he expends energy and money in building temples, reviving or inventing rituals (closing the gates of Janus, holding the Secular Games; augurium salutis; Arvals) and including lost of religious imagery on coins and monuments. Presented by Horace as sent by gods to save Rome, if not partly divine himself (Odes 1.2 especially). Emphasised links to deified (adopted) father (styled himself divi filius) and through Caesar to Aeneas and Venus. Eastern tradition of ruler-worship, but highly problematic in Rome; certainly allows temples to be set up in provinces to ‘Roma and Augustus’ (helps to hold empire together by providing common focus of loyalty and worship?), and sources disagree over how far he allowed himself to be worshipped as divine. No actual state cult in Rome, but plenty of literary and artistic representations blur the distinction between god and man, and present him almost as messianic figure, bringer of the new golden age. Cult of genius Augusti introduced at compitalia, and prayers for his safety surely blurred the distinction between man and god even at Rome. Topic 14: Ruling the Empire Exam topic Augustus’ relationship to the senate, soldiers, plebs and provincials Key sources Strabo, Geography 10.5.3 Petitioning of Octavian abroad by fishermen Strabo, Geography 17.3.25 Division of Empire in two and Imperial/Public provinces Suetonius 47 Other primary sources LACTOR, Section M (various sources, divided geographically and by topic) Suetonius 46-50 Cassius Dio 56.18; Virgil Eclogue 1, on the view from Italy in the triumvirate Key questions and debates What impact did Augustus have on life in the provinces? Notes Range of reforms to provincial administration, including (as mentioned above) division of provinces into public and imperial. (Note especially the unusual arrangements put in place in Egypt, to prevent any threat from ambitious senators – LACTOR M6-14). All governors received a fixed salary, rather than relying on taking a proportion of the tax revenues; improvements in financial structures and taxation; better communication with introduction of imperial post; changes in management of legal cases brought by provincials on the grounds of extortion. Measures intended to reform endemic corruption and oppression of provincials (LACTOR M76-79), and also improve flow of wealth to treasury Provinces benefit from peace, allowing increase in trade and communication around Mediterranean; arguably, flow of taxes to Rome stimulates trade as provinces have to raise money to pay tax. Most regions left more or less to govern themselves, reliance on local urban elites; unity developed through gradual spread of citizenship and Roman law, and common adherence to the imperial cult. Italy (though not itself a province, of course) seems to do particularly well under Augustus. Old Roman aristocracy heavily depleted in civil wars; replaced by new aristocracy, most of it appointed by Augustus, coming mostly from elsewhere in Italy (with a few from other ‘more civilized’ provinces such as southern Spain). Archaeological evidence shows prosperity and increased settlement in many areas of the countryside, and epigraphy attests to buildings activities in many towns, often sponsored by the emperor, members of his family, and friends. Note that many key literary sources (Virgil, Horace, Livy) are produced by writers from Italy, not the old Roman elite. Reading Eck, chapter 10; Wells, chapters IV and VI. A.K. Bowman, ‘Provincial administration and taxation’, in CAH X. More generally on the subject, Peter Garnsey & Richard Saller, The Roman Empire (Duckworth, 1987), chapters 1 and 2; Fergus Millar, The Roman Empire and its Neighbours (Duckworth, 2nd edn 1981), especially chapters 3-5; David Braund, ed., The Administration of the Roman Empire (Exeter UP, 1988). Purcell and Woolf in Galinsky Companion. Topic 15: The Army and the Frontiers Exam topic Augustus’ relationship to the senate, soldiers, plebs and provincials Key sources Res Gestae 25-30 Suetonius 49 Other primary sources LACTOR, section N Cassius Dio 55.23-5; 56.33. Suetonius 21-25 Velleius 2.104.2 – 111.4 (Campaigns with Tiberius, AD 4-12) Key questions and debates How did the army change during the age of Augustus? What motivated these changes? Did Augustus have a coherent strategy for establishing the boundaries of the empire? Notes With regard to the army, Augustus simply completed a long process of transformation, from the citizen militia of the middle Republic, recruited above all from the peasant classes, to a professional army. The impoverishment of the Italian peasantry, and the extraordinary military efforts of the last two centuries, had already led to recruitment from the capite censi, the bottom census class, who fought for pay and the prospect of booty. Augustus apparently fixed the number of legions at 28 and set a minimum term of service; he also fixed the soldiers’ pay, and arranged for them to receive money or land when they were discharged (under the triumvirate, this had been provided by confiscating land). After Actium, Augustus shouldered the burden, until he established a military treasury in AD 6). Perhaps most importantly, he enforced an annual oath of allegiance to himself. Finally, he preferred to entrust important commands to members of his own family like Tiberius and Germanicus, rather than giving them to members of the old nobility. Army became increasingly attached to imperial house (though, as Nero’s reign shows, its loyalty could not be counted on if the emperor lost its confidence) and increasingly separate from the rest of society. Frontiers: historians have debated in recent years whether the emperors ever had a coherent strategy. Some have argued that Augustus aimed to use major rivers like the Danube, the Elbe and the Rhine as frontiers between Rome and the barbarians; after the disastrous ambush of three Roman legions in the Teutoberg Forest in AD 9, his strategy became defensive, and he advised Tiberius that the frontiers of the empire should not be extended. In the East, where the Romans faced a powerful state rather than disorganised tribes, they tended to deal with Parthians through negotiation and treaties rather than outright hostility — though still presented the return of the standards lost on Crassus’ disastrous campaign in 53 BC as a great victory. Whittaker offers an alternative view: there is no evidence that Augustus considered anything more than a temporary halt to expansion, and possibly the words used in his posthumous instructions to Tiberius advise against reorganising already-existing provinces rather than forbid the acquisition of new ones. He argues that frontiers stopped where they did because of logistics (length of supply lines), not strategy, and also stresses that it is not helpful to think of frontiers as fixed, impermeable boundaries between Romans and barbarians but rather as zones of controlled movement. Reading Eck, chapters 11-12; Fergus Millar, The Roman Empire and its Neighbours (Duckworth, 2nd edn 1981), chapter 6. C.R. Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire (Johns Hopkins, 1994), chapters 1-3, esp. chapters 2 and 3. Lawrence Keppie, The Making of the Roman Army (Batsford, 1984), chapter 6 and ‘The army and the navy’ in CAH X. Topic 16: Partners in Power I: Agrippa & Maecenas Exam topic The constitutional settlement of 28/7 BC and 23 BC and the powers and roles adopted by Augustus or given to others The role of the emperor’s family, friends and supporters Key sources Velleius on Maecenas as urban praetor and his character [88.2] Velleius on Agrippa’s ‘retirement’ then marriage to Julia [93.1-2] LACTOR H27 (Denarius of Augustus & Agrippa as tribunes) LACTOR L22, L27 (Agrippa’s role in Centennial Games) Other primary sources See LACTOR, Section R – Maecenas and the Arts, especially R1-13, and parts of the Lives of Horace & Virgil (R14-15) See LACTOR, Section T – Augustan Society, especially T2-14 (T14 = Augustus’ Eulogy for Agrippa after death – papyrus fragment) Key questions and debates How important a part did Agrippa and Maecenas play in Augustus’ rise to prominence and consolidation of his position? Did Maecenas fall from favour? How, if at all, were they replaced when they fell from favour or died? Notes Dio’s ‘constitutional debate’ = History, book 54, between Agrippa and Maecenas is pure invention. Teaching ideas This topic leads itself very well to a formal or informal debate (or balloon debate) between pupils representing Agrippa and Maecenas. Reading Oxford Classsical Dictionary: Maecenas, Agrippa (pedantically under VIPSANIUS) Syme, RR chapter 30 and see index; J. Griffin, ‘Caesar qui cogere postest’ in F. Millar and E. Segal, Caesar Augustus (1984), E. Fantham, Julia Augusti, the Emperor’s Daughter (2006), chapters 4-5. Topic 17: Partners in Power II: The Senate Exam topic The constitutional settlement of 28/7 BC and 23 BC and the powers and roles adopted by Augustus or given to others The role of the emperor’s family, friends and supporters Key sources Res Gestae – frequent references to ‘the senate decreed …’ etc Section F, Tacitus, Annals I. 1-4, 9-10 Strabo, Geography 17.3.25 Tacitus, Annals 2.43 Velleius 2.95.3 Other primary sources LACTOR, T1 and T15-29 LACTOR Section B (pages 36-45 – the consul list) Key questions and debates Did Augustus merely play lip-service to the senate’s traditional role? How did the senate’s functions change (judicial court; loyal supporter of Augustus and his family; decrees beginning to take force of law)? How did Augustus begin to bypass the senate (foreign embassies approach him rather than senate)? Most senators were in a much better position under Augustus than they would have been if in the senate in the fifty years before Actium. Discuss. Notes Senate’s traditional role was to advise the magistrates (taken from their ranks and who would return to being ‘ordinary senators’ after their term of office expired). This advice covered all aspects of policy in Rome, Italy and the empire, finance and religion. The senate also controlled the levying and disposal of military forces. Magistrates had the power to command (imperium), and their powers included everything short of putting to death a Roman citizen without appeal. Only members of the senate could command armed forces (hence the illegality of Octavian raising an army as a private citizen). The senate usually discussed proposed legislation. They also decided on peace and war, though a popular assembly was required to give assent. The senate also essentially ruled the religious life of Rome. The senate chose, from amongst its members, governors to rule the provinces of the empire. Reading ‘senate’ in OCD, the whole entry including that for regal and republican periods. Syme, AA chapter XXX, The Apologia for the Principate. Syme, The Roman Revolution (1939), chapter 26-27. C. Nicolet, ‘Augustus, government and the propertied classes’, in Caesar Augustus. Seven Aspects eds Millar & Segal (1984) esp. pp. 89-96 R. Talbert, The Senate of Imperial Rome (1984); more briefly, Talbert, R. (1996) 'The Senate and senatorial and equestrian posts', in CAH X 324-43 Teaching ideas: one approach would be to follow as closely as possible the career of one or more Augustan consuls (and sometimes that of their fathers and sons). Interesting studies could be (one from each decade): M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus (cos 31 BC) in OCD (under Valerius); Syme AA chapter XV Cn. Calpurnius Piso (cos 23 BC) In OCD (= Calpurnius (RE 95) Piso (2), Gnaeus) Syme, RR 334f L. Domitius Ahenobarbus (cos 16 BC) In OCD (= Domitius (RE 28) Ahenobarbus (2), Lucius Syme AA index P. Sulpicius Quirinius (cos 12 BC) In OCD, Syme RR index Cossus Cornelius Lentulus (cos 1 BC) Not in OCD Syme AA index C. Poppaeus Sabinus (cos AD 9) See Poppaea Sabina in OCD Use index to LACTOR and follow other references. Topic 18: Partners in Power III: Family Exam topic The constitutional settlement of 28/7 BC and 23 BC and the powers and roles adopted by Augustus or given to others The role of the emperor’s family, friends and supporters Key sources Aeneid 6.752-892 (Marcellus) Horace Odes 4.14 (Tiberius & Drusus) Pliny, Natural History 7.147-150 Velleius 93, 100.3-5 Suetonius, The Deified Augustus 63-66 Other primary sources LACTOR, Section J Ara pacis augustae (picture) K11, K15, K29-32, K40-42, K52-53, M81-4 Key questions and debates In what various ways did Augustus try to create a dynasty, and how did he present this in Rome and the provinces? Were his family more of an advantage or a hindrance to him? Notes See family trees at end of LACTOR 17 (pages 412-5) Reading Zanker E. Fantham, Julia Augusti, the Emperor’s Daughter (2006), chapter 8 (Julia’s boys) Topic 19: Opponents: Conspiracies, Scandals, Free Speech Exam topic The opposition to the emperor and its presentation in the sources Key sources For all the sources on the various conspiracies or scandals, arranged chronologically, see LACTOR, Section P, with notes giving cross-references to elsewhere in the LACTOR and to other sources, including Velleius 88.1 & 88.3 - M. Lepidus assassination plot Velleius 92.1-5 - Sentius Saturninus puts down Egnatius Rufus (19 BC) Velleius 93.1 - Murena & Caepio conspiracy (23 BC) (see also pp.38-9 under consuls for 23 BC) Velleius 100.3-5 - Julia’s adultery and banishment Suetonius 19 (mostly trivializing) Key questions and debates Why is it often so difficult to determine what actually happened? Which, if any, of the various episodes seem to have been serious threats to the princeps personally or to the stability of the state? Notes Reading Syme, AA, pages 387-9 Syme, The Roman Revolution (1939), chapter 31. E. Fantham, Julia Augusti, the Emperor’s Daughter (2006), chapters 7 & 9 Teaching ideas: Pupils may well be able to relate this topic to more modern ‘conspiracy theories’, and consider whether different levels of technology and communication are likely to lead to such conspiracy theories being more likely in Augustan or modern times. Conspiracies and scandals are, of course, particularly prominent in Robert Graves’ wonderful historical novel (which often sticks very close to the sources), I, Claudius and the famous BBC adaptation, now on DVDs. Revision: Teaching Ideas: For most pupils, the first resource, one suspects will be Augustus on Wikipedia, which almost entirely ignores any source-material or difficulties of interpretation! An excellent revision task would be to get pupils to mark the Wikipedia articles, indicating where the picture given is too simplistic and, especially, marking in sources for the various statements, with some evaluation Bibliography LACTOR 17, The Age of Augustus, edited M.G.L. Cooley ISBN 0 903625 30X: Augustus, Res Gestae Divi Augusti (Section A – pp 27-35) Horace, Epode 9 (G5 – p105-6, 1 page) Rejoice for Victory at Actium Horace, Odes 1.37 (G24 – p.123-4, 1 page) Suicide of Cleopatra Horace, Odes 3.5 (G27 – pp.127-8, 1½ pages) (Military victories predicted in Britain) Horace Odes 3.6 (G28- pp.129-130, 1 page) (Civil wars as divine punishment for neglect of temples and sexual impropriety) Horace Odes 4.14 (G44 – pp.154-6, 1½ pages) (Tiberius & Drusus in the Alps) Horace Odes 4.15 (G45 – pp.156-7, 1 page) (Celebration of Augustus’s achievements) Horace Carmen Saeculare (L28) Livy 4.20.5-8, 11 (P4 - p.332, ½ page) Aulus Cornelius Cossus and the Spoils of Honour (29 BC) Macrobius, Saturnalia 1.11.17 (P14 – p 336, 3 lines) Freedman tortured to give evidence of an affair of Julia (2 BC) Macrobius, Saturnalia 1.11.21 (P9 – p 334, 5 lines) Slave of Caepio, would-be assassin of Augustus (23/2 BC?) Nepos, Life of Atticus 20.3 (P3 – p 332, 4 lines) Temple of Jupiter Feretrius (connected with spolia opima controversy, 29 BC) Ovid, Fasti 3.415-428 (H30 – p.190, 14 lines) Augustus pontifex maximus (12 BC) Ovid, Fasti 5.140-158 (L13 – p.263, 19 lines) worship of the genius (divine spirit) of Aug Pliny, Natural History 7.147-150 (P1 – p.331, ½ page) Augustus’ misfortunes Propertius, 4.6 (G39 – pp.146-8, 2 pages) Temple of Apollo of Actium Quintilian, Orator’s Education 6.3.77 (L18 – p.265, 2 lines) Aug unimpressed by a ‘miracle’ (emperor-worship) Strabo, Geography 10.5.3 (M68 – p.304, 7 lines) Petitioning of Octavian abroad by fishermen (29 BC) Strabo, Geography 17.1.54 (N34 – p.324, ½ page) Petronius’ expedition to Ethiopia (25/24 BC) Strabo, Geography 17.1.54 (N35 – p.324, 7 lines) Ethiopian revolt and peace settlement, c. 21 BC Strabo, Geography 17.3.25 (H19 & M2) Division of Empire in two and Imperial/Public provinces (28/7 BC) Seneca the Younger, Concerning Clemency 1.9.2-1.9.12 (P11 – pp.334-5, 1 page) Cinna’s plot to assassinate Aug (16 BC) Seneca the Younger, Concerning Clemency 1.10.3-4 (P15 – pp.336-7, 10 lines) Aug’s clemency to Julia’s lovers Seneca the Younger, On Benefits 6.32 (P12 – p.336, 14 lines) Elder Julia tried and banished, 2 BC Suetonius, Tiberius 8.1 (P10 – p.334, 2 lines) Tiberius prosecutes Caepio Tacitus, Annals 1.1-4 & 9-10 (Section F – pp. 83-86 & 89-91) 5 pages Tacitus, Annals 2.43 (H42 – p.196, 4 lines) Aug encourages a republican stalwart to become consul (23 BC) Tacitus, Annals 3.56 (H26 – p.188, 8 lines) Tribunician power (23 BC) Tacitus, Annals 4.44 (P13 – p.336, 5 lines) Iullus Antonius executed for adultery, his son exiled (2 BC) Velleius Paterculus (Section E) 2. 88-89 (pp58-60 – 2 pages), 92 –95 (pp.61-63 – 2 pages), 99-100 (pp.65-66 – 1½ pages), 123-24 (pp.79-81 – 1½ pages) Vitruvius, On Architecture 5.1.7 (L14 – p.263-4, 4 lines) The Temple of Augustus at Fanum (emperor-worship during Aug life) Virgil, Aeneid 1.257-296 (G36, pp.135-7, 1 page) Jupiter’s prophecy (of Roman conquest and peace under Aug) Virgil, Aeneid 6.752-892 (G37, pp.137-140, 3 pages) Pageant of Roman Heroes (especially Aug and Marcellus) Virgil, Aeneid 8.671-731 (G38, pp.143-5, 1½ pages) The Shield of Aeneas (especially Battle of Actium) Suetonius, The Deified Augustus 17-19 (2 pages); 26-28 (2 pages); 31 (1 page); 47 (½ page); 49 (½ page); 58 (½ page); 63-66 (3 pages) Archaeological sources Aureus 28 BC = H18, p.185: New Aureus Aureus 27 BC = H21, p.186: Civic crown aureus Denarius 13 BC = H27, p.189: Agrippa & Augustus as Tribunes Aureus 2 BC-AD 11 = J58, p.220: Gaius & Lucius as principes iuventutis Denarius 16 BC = L1, p.258: Symbols of 4 priesthoods held by Aug. Aureus c. 19 BC = L9, pp 261-2: Altar of Fortuna Redux Denarius 16 BC = L10, p.262: Public vows for Aug’s safety Aureus 16 BC = L26, pp 270: Augustus distributes suffimenta for ludi saeculares Denarius 29-7 BC = N5, p.313: Victory Aureus 15-12 BC = N15, p.317: Aug. receiving triumphal branches Denarius 27 BC = N31, p.323: Capture of Egypt Aureus 13 BC = T13, p.377: Agrippa & Augustus Inscription Rome ILS 88 = (L11 p.262, 4 lines) Votive games celebrating Aug’s return, 13 BC Inscription Rome ILS 3612 = (L12 p.263, 4 lines) Introduction of cult of Augustan Lares at Rome, ? 7 BC Inscription Puteoli CIL X.1613 = (L15 p.264, 2 lines) Temple of Aug at Puteoli (emperor-worship in Italy in Aug’s life) Inscription Altar Narbonne ILS 112 = (L17 pp.264-6, 1 page) Altar to numen of Aug, AD 12-3, Narbonne Calendar Inscription SEG 4.490 (not 34.490!) = (H34 pp.191-193, 2 pages) New Calendar for Asia, based on Aug’s birthday Chapter guides for Velleius 88 M. Lepidus assassination plot [88.1 & 88.3] Maecenas as urban praetor and his character [88.2] 89 Octavian’s return (29 BC) and triumphs [89.1] Panegyric [89.2-6] Restoration of traditional form of the republic [89.3 with note 10] 92 Sentius Saturninus puts down Egnatius Rufus (19 BC) [92.1-5] 93 Murena & Caepio conspiracy (23 BC) [93.1] – (see also pp.38-9 under consuls for 23 BC and p.334, including P9-10) Marcellus as possible successor; his death (23 BC, after Aug 1) [93.1] Agrippa’s ‘retirement’ then marriage to Julia [93.1-2] 94 In praise of Tiberius [94.1-3]; date of Livia’s marriage [94.1] Tiberius in Armenia (20-19 BC) [94.4] 95 Tiberius & Drusus in the Alps (15-14 BC) [95.1-2] Censordship of Plancus & Paulus (22 BC) [95.3] 99 100 123 124 Tiberius trib pot [99.1] Tiberius’ withdrawal from public life (the Tib. version) [99.2-4] Dedication of Temple of Mars Ultor (2 BC) [100.2] Julia’s adultery and banishment [100.3-5] Augustus’ last days and death [123.1-2] Tiberius takes over [124.1-4] Chapter guides for Suetonius 17 Break with Antony, including Actium (2 lines!) (mid 30s – 31BC) Mutiny at Brindisium (30 BC) Deaths of Antony & Cleopatra at Alexandria (30 BC) 18 Sees sarcophagus of Alexander the Great Incorporates Egypt into Roman Empire Celebrates Actium with foundation of Nicopolis, and quinquennial games 19 Various conspiracies (throughout reign, few details most trivial) 26 27 28 Aug’s consulships, Aug’s cruel acts as triumvir Trib pot and censorships Considers restoring republic Building works (Rome brick to marble) 31 Chief priest and other religious matters Month named August Honours great Romans 47 Provinces, including visits and imperial/public 49 Military dispositions and reforms 58 Pater Patriae 63 64 65 66 Julia Aug’s grandchildren Family Deaths and disgrace Aug’s friends (including scandals) Other useful editions of primary texts with translation and commentary Brunt, P.A. & Moore, J.M, eds, Res Gestae Divi Augusti (OUP, 1967) Cooley, A.E. Res Gestae Divi Augusti (CUP, Feb 2009) Rich, J.W., Cassius Dio: the Augustan Settlement (Aris and Phillips, 1990). Secondary reading (The following are likely to be of great general use for many of the topics in the period for teachers and students. Other more specific books and articles are listed in the reading for individual topics.) Eck, W., Augustus (1998 & Eng ed, Blackwell, 2003) The most reliable short, modern biography Fantham, Julia Augusti the Emperor’s Daughter, (Routledge, 2006) Biography, with useful appendixes detailing and translating sources Galinsky, K., Cambridge Companion to Age of Augustus (1996) Wide-ranging selection of articles Levick, B. Tiberius the Politician (1976 & Routledge 1999) chaps. 1-5 Early chapters about Tiberius effectively cover much of Augustus’ reign. Millar, F.G.B. & Segal, E., Caesar Augustus: seven aspects Seven individual and important articles Syme, The Roman Revolution (1939), Hugely influential and itself revolutionary. Brilliantly but densely written. Greatly influenced by his own times (dedicated to his parents and his country). Excellent indexes. Syme, The Augustan Aristocracy, (OUP 1986) 30 studies of leading people and their families under Augustus. Excellent indexes. Wallace-Hadrill, A., Augustan Rome (BCP, 1993) Sophisticated and readable introduction to the period. Good on literary and archaeological sources. Wells, C. The Roman Empire (Fontana, 2nd edn 1992) Standard general introduction to the Roman Empire Zanker, The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus, (U. of Michigan, 1990) Ground-breaking work on Augustus’ image through art & architecture, but also poetry. Cambridge Ancient History Volume X, The Augustan Empire, edited by A.K. Bowman, E. Champlin and A. Lintott (CUP, 1999). The standard work on the period.