Download Key - Elder Ecology LEQ Ecological Organization 1. Distinguish if

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Storage effect wikipedia , lookup

Ecosystem services wikipedia , lookup

Biogeography wikipedia , lookup

Ecological fitting wikipedia , lookup

Photosynthesis wikipedia , lookup

Molecular ecology wikipedia , lookup

Allometry wikipedia , lookup

Human impact on the nitrogen cycle wikipedia , lookup

Nitrogen cycle wikipedia , lookup

Renewable resource wikipedia , lookup

Ecology wikipedia , lookup

Lake ecosystem wikipedia , lookup

Triclocarban wikipedia , lookup

Microbial metabolism wikipedia , lookup

History of wildlife tracking technology wikipedia , lookup

Ecosystem wikipedia , lookup

Theoretical ecology wikipedia , lookup

Habitat wikipedia , lookup

Natural environment wikipedia , lookup

Key - Elder
Ecology LEQ
Ecological Organization
1. Distinguish if the following are abiotic (A) or biotic factors (B).
A (C) a. air
e. mushrooms
i. land
b. animals
f. Plants
j. Dirt
A(P/C) n. grapes
c. bacteria
A(P) g. Precipitation
k. ocean
A(P) o. sand
1. snail
A (C) d. heat
A(C) h. Sunlight
m. coral
p. Mold
2. Put the levels of organization in order from the most simplest to the most complex.
organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere
3. Which level(s) contains abiotic factors only? Biotic factors? Abiotic: NONE; Biotic: organism, population, community
4. Which level(s) contain both biotic and abiotic factors? Ecosystem and biosphere
5. Explain the difference between a community and ecosystem.
Community involves multiple populations in the same environment (biotic only); Ecosystem involves both a community
(biotic) and abiotic factors in the environment
6. Explain the difference between a population and a community.
Population - multiple organisms of the same species (ex: robins)
Community- involves multiple populations in the same area (ex: robins, cardinals, white-tailed deer, foxes)
7. What is a biome?
A major regional or global community of organisms. Usually characterized by the climate conditions, plant and animals
communities that thrive there.
8. Use the picture to identify: abiotic factors, biotic factors, an organism, a population, a community, and an ecosystem.
Abiotic Factor: clouds
Biotic Factor: white-tailed deer
Organism: rabbit (1 individual)
Population: white-tailed deer (multiple organisms
of the same species)
Community: trees, spiders, deer (multiple
populations interacting together in the same
Ecosystem: grasslands; clouds, weather, rocks,
birds, trees, rabbit, flowers (all biotic and abiotic
factors interacting together in the same
Biogeochemical Cycles
9. Explain the water cycle (draw the cycle) and its importance to the environment.
Precipitation: water leaves the atmosphere through rain, snow, sleet,
hail, or fog; amount of water the atmosphere can hold depends on
abiotic factors, such as temperature, air pressure
Evaporation: adds water vapor to the atmosphere; heat causes water
to evaporate from oceans and other bodies of water, from the
soil and from bodies of living things
Transpiration: water evaporates through plants, trees (stomata in leaves)
Condensation: particles come together in the clouds
Run-off: water “run-offs” hills, mountains, etc.
Groundwater: water under ground
10. Explain the nitrogen cycle (draw the cycle) and its importance to the environment.
*Nitrogen is needed for life
*Nitrogen Fixation- process of converting nitrogen to nitrates
- aquatic: blue-green algae
-terrestrial- bacteria in soil and/or roots of legumes
Returns to the Soil by:
*Ammonification: decomposing or decaying or once living organisms
-releases nitrogen into ammonia
*Nitrification- bacteria take ammonia and turn it into nitrates or nitrites
Returns to atmosphere by:
Denitrification- occurs when anaerobic bacteria breaks down nitrates and releases nitrogen back to the atmosphere
Nitrogen Cycle- plants absorb nitrates from soil; animals cannot
Animals obtain nitrogen by eating plants and other organisms and then digesting the proteins and nucleic acids
11. Why are bacteria important to the nitrogen cycle? Provides ways human activity could disrupt the nitrogen cycle.
Bacteria perform actions that are able to transform nitrogen gas into a usable form; nitrogen-fixing bacteria convert
nitrogen gas into ammonia, then nitrite, and then nitrate, which plants can use.
12. Explain the carbon cycle (draw the cycle) and its importance to the environment.
Carbon EXISTS in abiotic environment as:
-carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere
-carbonate rocks (limestone and coral)
-deposits of coal, petroleum, and natural gas (derived from once living things)
-dead organic matter (humans in the soil)
Carbon ENTERS the biotic environment through photosynthesis (light energy is
converted to chemical energy)
Carbon RETURNS to the atmosphere
-respiration (releases carbon dioxide)
Importance: all living things have carbon, plants need it to photosynthesize, carbon is needed to help regulate the
temperature of the Earth
However, too much carbon in the atmosphere overheats the Earth causing global warming which can harm life on
Earth; human influence can also increase carbon in the atmosphere such as burning of fossils and/or removal of
photosynthesizing plants
Interactions and Relationships Within an Ecosystem
13. What is the difference between a producer (autotroph) and a consumer (heterotroph)?
Producer- make their own food through photosynthesis; plants
Consumer- cannot make their own food internally, need to go get their food; animals
14 . Distinguish between the different types of heterotrophs:
herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, detritrivore, decomposers
Herbivore- plant eater;
carnivore- meat eater;
omnivore- eats both plants/animals;
decomposers- break down dead or decaying organisms from complex molecules to simple molecules
detritivore- feed on “garbage” (such as organisms that have recently died)
15. What is the difference between a primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary consumer?
Primary consumer- eat producers
Secondary consumer- eat the primary consumers
Tertiary consumer- eat the secondary consumers
Quaternary consumer- eat the tertiary consumer
Put the following organisms in order of a consumers: snake, rat, grasshopper, hawk, grass
Grass (producer) -> grasshopper (primary consumer) ->rat (secondary consumer) -> snake (tertiary consumer) ->
hawk (quaternary consumer)
Use the diagram to answer the following question 16-21:
16. What does this diagram represent? Food web
17. What does the fox eat? Puffin, kittiwake, rat
18. What organism(s) eat the cephalopod? Puffin, sand lance
19. Which group of organisms would have the greatest total biomass? phytoplankton (biomass- organic material in an
ecosystem built by producers)
20. Which organisms are essential to a balanced ecosystem? decomposers
21. If the gull population declines, what could result? the auklet population would increase as no other organism eats
it; the sand lance population could continue to decrease because the gull will not feed off but the kittiwake does.
However, if the kittiwake population decreases (as the rat and the fox eat them) could increase the sand lance
population. If the population of kittiwake decreases, the fox and rat would lose a food source and competition would
increase between the fox and rat as they both feed off of the puffin
22. What is the difference between a food chain and a food web?
Food chain is a single pathway of a feeding relationship resulting in energy being transferred
Food webs are interconnected food chains to show all feeding relationships and how ENERGY is transferred
Complete the pyramid with the appropriate organism:
Tertiary consumer
Secondary consumer
Primary consumer
Primary consumer
Primary consumer
23. Approximately, how much energy is lost? 90%
What is the most of the energy lost as? heat
24. Describe how energy flows through an ecosystem.
Producer to 1st consumer to 2nd level consumer to 3rd level consumer to (4th level consumer)
25. What is symbiosis?
Interaction between two different organisms living in close physical association
26. Complete the table by placing an “X” in the correct place.
Type of Relationship
Species Harmed
Species Benefited
Species Not Harmed
Directions: Identify the type of relationship being described.
27. Microorganisms in an elk’s stomach benefit from having a place to live and the elk benefits by the microorganisms
digesting its food. Mutualism (both the microorganisms and elk benefit)
28. Orchid growing on a tree trunk benefits by receiving protection, moisture and light, and the tree is not affected at
all. Commensalism (orchid benefits/tree is unharmed)
29. Tapeworms in humans benefit by receiving nutrients and the human are harmed by not getting any nutrients.
Parasitism (tapeworms use humans as a host/humans are harmed)
30. In the ocean, certain species, like shrimps and gobies, will clean fish. They remove parasites, dead tissue, and
mucous. Mutualism (shrimp benefits by eating the parasites, etc/fish benefit by being cleaned)
31. The cattle egret will eat insects that have been disturbed when the cattle forage.
Commensalism (egret benefit by eating the insects/cattle unaffected)
32. Fleas and mosquitoes feed on blood from other organisms.
Parasitism (fleas/mosquitoes are benefiting getting food from a host/other organisms are being harmed)
33. What is a population?
Multiple organisms of the same species in the same area (white-tailed deer)
34. What is population size?
The number of individuals in a population at a given time
35. What does population density measure?
Measures the number of individuals per unit area
For 36-38, identify the type of dispersion as clumped, even, or random.
36. Aggressive interactions among nesting birds. clumped
37. A school of fish. even
38. Results from seed dispersal. random
39. Why are populations dynamic?
Populations are constantly changing in size (birth rate/death rate)
40. Explain the survivorship curve. (In other words, what does it mean and what does each line represent.)
a. What is the purpose of this graph?
Shows the likelihood of survival at different ages throughout the lifetime of an organism
b. Type 1 Line: likelihood of dying is small until late in life (elephants and humans)
c. Type 2 Line: probability of dying does not change throughout life (many birds)
d. Type 3 Line: many organisms likely to die young but if they do survive their early period, they have a good chance
of living a long time (oysters, salmon, insects)
41. Explain 4 ways that can affect the rate of population growth.
1. Birth Rate- number of births occurring in a period of time
2. Death Rate (Mortality)- number of deaths in a period of time
3. Immigration- movement of individuals INTO a population
4. Emigration- movement of individuals OUT of the population
42. Explain the following graph:
a. The graph represents what kind of population growth model? J-curve
b. Realistically, population cannot grow indefinitely. Explain why the statement.
Populations cannot grow indefinitely because resources are scarce and waste accumulates; all populations are limited
by their environment; a factor that restrains the growth of a population- limiting factor
43. Explain the following graph:
a. The graph represents what kind of population growth model? S-curve (logistic model)
b. Why does the graph show an S-curve?
shows the effect of limiting factors and carry capacity (the total number or organisms can support over a period of
c. What does this model take into account that the other growth model does not? Limiting factors
44. Weather and floods are examples of what kind of limiting factors? Density-independent
45. Food shortages or nesting sites are examples of what kind of limiting factors? Density-dependent
46. What is the difference between primary and secondary succession?
Primary- the development of a community in an area that has not supported life previously, such as bare rock and
sand dune, very slow process!
47. What is a pioneer species?
Pioneer species- first species, fast growing, fast reproducing
48. What are invasive species?
Invasive species- are species that are not native to an area and can cause harm (stinkbugs)
Example: Stinkbugs are native to Asia. They have become a nuisance to Americans and farmers. Stinkbugs like to
eat fruits and vegetables destroying crops. Although there are some natural predators, those predators cannot keep
up with the stinkbug population!
Tolerance Curves
49. What is a tolerance curve?
Comparing a performance factor with an environmental factor; its shows differences in tolerance in with an organism
can handle
50. Explain the graph.
51. How is acclimation different from adaptation?
Acclimation- an adjustment of a tolerance; Adaptation- new feature that allows an organisms to survive and
52. What is a niche?
The role an organism plays in the environment (includes interactions between abiotic and biotic, resources and
conditions that the organism can tolerate)