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Transcript
Deriving from Arabic word khalifa
“succession”, caliphate describes
Islamic state ruled by single political
and religious leader, or caliph
Caliphs are regarded by their
followers as successors to Prophet
Muhammad and sovereign over
all Muslims
First caliphate led by four
immediate successors to Muhammad.
Known as Rashidun, or “rightly
guided”, Caliphs Abu Bakr, Umar I,
Uthman and Ali expanded Islam,
ruling vast lands under Sharia law
Over following centuries,
caliphates expanded dominion in
Middle East and North Africa under
Umayyad (661-750) and Abbasid
(749-1258) dynasties
TURKEY
IRAN
Damascus
JO
RD
AN
SYRIA
Baghdad
SAUDI
ARABIA
200km
125 miles
I R A Q
KUWAIT
Source: Institute for the Study of War
Last widely accepted caliphate
abolished in 1924 by Turkish
leader Kemal Ataturk after collapse
of Ottoman Empire (1301-1922) and
removal of Caliph Abdulmecid II
June 30, 2014: ISIS
(Islamic State in Iraq and
the Levant) announces
creation of caliphate in
territories under its control
in Iraq and Syria
ISIS, renamed IS (Islamic State),
has proclaimed leader Abu Bakr
al-Baghdadi as “Caliph Ibrahim”
and “leader for Muslims everywhere”
Boundaries of caliphate
envisioned by ISIS –
as posted on Twitter, March 2014
Pictures: Library of Congress, AP
© GRAPHIC NEWS