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NAME: KABUOH IJEOMA ROSEMARY. DEPARTMENT: NURSING SCIENCE. COURSE: PHILOSOPHY, GST 113. LEVEL: 100. ETHICS AND HUMAN CONDUCT IN THE SOCIETY. INTRODUCTION: The conception of man as “zoo politikon”, which means “political animal” by Aristotle, in his famous book, politics, the books aim is to portray human beings as social beings. The portrayal of this book suggests that no man is an Island that has everything. We need one another in order to pursue political, social, spiritual, and economic goals. Aristotle was then agreed with “that he who is unable to live in society, or who has no need because he is insufficient for himself must either be a beast or a god”. But the actions of individuals which are unavoidable throw up challenges. The challenge being code of conduct set to control and guides the actions of individuals in order to prevent “war against all” and individuals are expected to adhere to these guides so as to promote wellbeing of everyone in the society. The societal rules do not border strictly on how individuals should relate to one another; they are put in practice to conduct how people should relate to other things and things that add value to the society. The moral code every society has tells how people should relate with one another and even with animals and celestial beings everywhere. The importance of moral rules has given rise to study what is right or wrong, good or bad, just or unjust called ethics. ETHICS AND ITS GOALS: Crucial questions like what is ethics? Of what importance is its study? Deserves our attention, Ethics is a branch of philosophy where the analytic and critical tools of philosophy are focused on human actions. It is a field that opens everything about morality. A definition of Ethics conceives it as an inquiry into the moral worth of human conducts. This is the reason why nearly ethics of everything exists.The different ethics recognize that there are diverse ethical challenges that lurk around in different facets and disciplines of life that require effective response that is able to ensure that moral principles are sustained in the various areas of human operations. Ethics is not just any kind of inquiry. Rather it is a rational inquiry. It is a moral inquiry which consists of everything about truth. It is practiced with the belief that humans are rational, and as rational beings they will seek adequate concerning their actions in their quest to determine the proper way to act or behave. Ethicists have developed arguments that are meant to induce actors with reasoning about how to evaluate moral actions to be undertaken and why a manner of thinking about an action is to be preferred over and above other theoretical lens of viewing it. The main aim of ethics is to make ethics realize the difference between good which is moral and bad which is immoral. As ethics has drawn attention to acts that humans should avoid and embrace ,it highlights to the principles of good behavior that people should subscribe their interaction with others in the society ,how to conduct themselves and treat others so as to live in peace and harmony. A good knowledge of ethics could provide guides which leaders would use to govern the affairs of the people. These main aims of ethics being to help humans have knowledge on hoe to known the difference between good and bad actions, moral philosophers carryout two tasks which are presenting us with better understanding of concepts employed in moral discourse and developing theories that people can appeal to in making moral decisions . METAETHICS: According to bodurin, the first step in philosophical reasoning is conceptual analysis. This step allows the philosopher to analyze the concept being discussed, thereby allowing the philosopher to discover what the meaning of his terms linguistic confusion. The aim of metaethics is to make a better understanding of concepts and terms used in ethical discourse so that people are better positioned to create principles of actions in ethical reasoning. Metaethics has to do with terms like wrong, right, good, bad, morally, moral judgment, and their meanings. It is also concerned with the meaning of ethical statements such as proponents of emotivism ,i.e. stealing is wrong, as this is said it means that stealing is wrong and everyone should deviate from stealing. Some theories that are mataethical try to address issues that relate to the origin or justification for moral standards. The aim is to understand a moral or immoral action .according to this theory, God is the source of our moral codes. The other theory is ethical relativism which is based on the personality of the person who acted in a right or wrong manner. Some explanations of ethics decrease all of ethics to what is done in metaethics. This explains why Simon Blackburn defined ethics as the study of concepts involved in practical reasoning, good, right, duty, obligation, virtue, freedom, choice, and rationality. The second-order that may attend claims made in these terms. Philosophers help theories that would guide moral decisions. NORMATIVE ETHICS: These are some actions that everyone would say are wrong, i.e. stealing, murder, and embezzlement. But there are some which one can wonder whether is right or wrong like euthanasia which means killing of someone who is suffering from a dangerous illness. Normative ethics is the sub-branch of moral philosophy that deals with making an act moral or immoral into a moral judgment. The first set of theories is called teleological ethical theories .These theories have the emphasis placed on consequences placed of an action in determining its rightness or wrongness in common. Philosophers have said it that anything right is what brings pleasure and anything wrong is what brings about pain. Three different normative ethics theories are attempts to answer questions like happiness or pleasure for whom, should the pleasure or happiness be for the performer or the action, or should it be for others who receive the action; in other words in determining the rightness or wrongness of an action the scale of preference should prioritise that action that will favor the individual performing the action. Teleological ethical theories have some shortcomings.pne require that we foresee the outcome of our actions which may bring bad or good results. Actions that one feels is favorable to one might favor others and this is vice-versa. Another major failure of teleological theory is it that makes it appear the end justifies the means .but the problem is that evil means cannot justify good end. The inadequacies of consequentialist ethical theories made some philosophers to favor deontological ethical theories, dentological ethical theories place importance on rules, motives and the nature of the action itself in deciding the rightness and wrongness of an action. Immanuel kant’s theory is an example of this moral theory, he is of view that the outcome of an action matters less than the will or motive informing an action to be performed, he believes we are responsible for our actions. CONCLUSION: The focus of this has been on examining how ethics has influenced human conduct and ethics influence can be in two dimensions. The first could be through enabling people to have a better knowledge of terms in moral reasoning or discourse. It also makes available framework of actions in form of normative theories that can guide human actions and make people act in good ways.