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Historical Background of Animal Behavior
The rise of Animal Behavior occurred in 3 lineages: Physiological (linked to
technology), Psychological, and Naturalistic
Physiological – did not concentrate on whole behavior
Willis - 1840 - 50 innate behavior programs
- nervous transmission - reflex
Pavlov - 1849 - 1936 Russian Physiologist - conditioning - any behavior
reduced to thousands of muscle contractions.
Fechner & Wundt - 1850s German physicians - human behavior control
-scientific approach in body
Lloyd Morgan - 1894 - Habits & Instincts - tried to remove
anthropomorphism and said animals do not learn - heavy on instincts
Thorndike - 1900 - Skinner’s teacher - Law of Effect = reward an animal for
an act - act more frequently
J.B. Watson - 1900 Behaviorism - heavy into learning in rats – continued into
the 50’s
B.F.( Burrhus Fredieric) Skinner - 1904 to recent - positive reinforcement learning
Spencer - 1850 - evolutionist - homogenous mass (1 cell) to heterogeneous
psychic - becomes increasingly localized (with hierarchy)
Lehrman - learning in doves
Naturalistic - goes back further - no technology required
Pennau - 1716 - bird song - noted that some song is inherited - instinct
Reimarus - 1773 - behavioral ontogeny in goats
Darwin 1859 - Origin of Species
-In the Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals-3 behavioral theories
1. Serviceable Associated Habits - linked activity same response to one
2. Principle of Antithesis - reverse stimulus and get opposite response
3. Direct Action of Excited Neurons System - preset nerve tracts
Romanes - 1890
- disciple of Darwin
- 1st to push for comparative studies
- use behavior to classify animals
- wrote Mental Evolution of Animals
C. O. Whitman - 1898 - American ethologists
- instinct strong in early ethology
- proponent of classifying animals by behaviors
Jan Fabre_ - insects - 1900
Wonders of Insects (book)
Loeb - 1900 King of Mechanistic behaviors
Theory of Animal Tropisms=Change of direction in response to
external stimulus
Peckham & Peckham - 1904 - Ethogram on wasps
Jennings - 1906 - anti Theory of Tropisms
studied Paramecia
- try to understand whole behavior - no breaking down
Jacob von Uexkll - 1910 - student of Loeb
- Umweldt = look into world of animal
think like animal = reverse anthropomorphism
Heinroth - 1910 - coined term ethology
Julian Huxley - 1914
1st one to talk about bird display
natural selection effect on display
Wallace Craig - student of Whitman - Appetitive Behavior
internal state - example = hunger
shows appetitive behav. = search for food
consummatory act = feeding
Eliot Howard - Territoriality in birds (MSU)
1st one since Aristotle to discuss terr.
Big Three –
Conrad Lorenz - Father of Ethology - On Aggression
Niko Tinbergen - gulls and fish and wasps
Karl von Frisch - bee dancing
-they believed in “the good of the group”