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Social Networks Analysis of the
Landscape of the City for Cultural Tourism
Luciano Torres Tricárico, University of Vale do Itajaí, Brazil
Diva de Mello Rossini, University of Vale do Itajaí, Brazil
Carlos Alberto Tomelin, University of Vale do Itajaí, Brazil
Tania Beisl Branches, University of Lisbon, Portugal
Abstract: The study enhances the method developed by Rossini in 2012, applying the analysis of social networks, which
generates sociograms that indicate the interrelations among categories in order to analyze the landscape of the city. This
matrix becomes a new method that, when applied, will indicate built differentials and potentials for the development of
cultural tourism. It will also help society to understand the importance of the material patrimony as an opportunity to
preserve and recover the memory and identity of the past so that future generations can experience them.
Keywords: Memory, Identity, Analysis of Social Networks, Cultural Tourism
he results of research have given rise to new questions, generating other studies that move
the gears of the production of knowledge. The development of this study, which is no
exception to the rule, was prompted by the need to review and refine the method
developed by Rossini in 2012. The method uses some of the categories for analysis of the
landscape of the city that were published in A imagem da cidade [The Image of the City] by
Lynch ([1960] 1997), in Paisagem urbana by Cullen ([1961] 1971), and in A arquitetura da
cidade[The Architecture of the City] by Rossi ([1966] 1995). Also the first work that indicated
the built heritage of the city as it attributes of the urban tourism landscape can be seen in the
book published by Boullón (2002), a construct based mainly on the concepts of Lynch.
In order to once again justify the research, the theoretical and scientific foundations of two
more scholars were associated with the research.Their selection criterion was of sharing scientific
affinities with the other authors of the study, a fact pointed out by Argan in the work A Historia
da Arte como Historia da Cidade [The History of the Art as History of the City] (1998) and
Portas with the publication A cidade como Arquitetura [The City as Architecture] (2011).In these
works, the authors discuss the concepts of the Italian School of Architecture, basing their
discussion on experience of the architects mentioned in Rossini’s (2012) method to expound their
theoretical references. All these academics experienced the social changes that occurred in
Europe during the period of implantation and development of the modernist movement at the
beginning of the twentieth century.
This researchand its methodological tools analyzed social networks, a procedure that makes
use of qualitative data for the construction of sociograms, which graphically demonstrate the
actions of each of the authors and their interrelations, the categories of analysis of the landscape,
and their connections. It also evidences the hierarchy of these categories and the degree of
centrality of the actors (Norman and Alejandro 2005). These are relevant data that indicate the
creation of a new method from a pre-existing one.
This new method signals the categories of analysis of the primordial landscape so that the
historical built differentials can indicate or identify a site as a potential center for the
development of cultural tourism.
It is worth emphasizing that obtaining data by scientific methods ensures the accuracy of the
information, an essential fact for the success of any endeavor. This is because the peculiarities of
Journal of Tourism and Leisure Studies
Volume #, Issue #, 20##,
© Common Ground Research Networks, Luciano Torres Tricárico,
Diva de Mello Rossini, Carlos Alberto Tomelin, Tania Beisl Branches
All Rights Reserved, Permissions: [email protected]
ISSN: 2470-9336 (Print), ISSN: 2470-9344 (Online)
each site and society have recently become a differential for the development of tourist activities.
These specificities have become magical attractions that cause the visitor to dream and return to
the past, imagining remote times and feeling like an agent in this context rather than a mere
observer (Marques 2005).
Theoretical Background to Rossini’s Method
Rossini (2012) developped her method from categories of city's analyse, brought by authors of
international recognition. These categories identify the layers that were being deployed in the
cities throughout time, and which still remain in the urban space.
These layers are compoused by edified patrimony elements that recorded events of diversified
natures, whether having a socioeconomic or a cultural caracter, produced in remote times.
The singularity of the data obtained by means of these categories grant the urban spaces some
diferentials, potentialities that can contribute to the developpement of actions regarding the
cultural tourism.
Kevin Lynch (1997) in “The Image of the City”
The publication A Imagem da Cidade [The Image of the City] ([1960] 1997) is the result of a
study by Lynch in which he examines how the innate human sense of time affects the way we see
and how we change our surroundings, especially in the cities.
This work, inspired by the theories of psychology of Gestalt, enhances the images generated
by a space, viewing them as mental pictures that can be shared by a large number of people who
live in the same urban area. It considers that an environmental image can be analyzed according
to three determining factors: identity, structure, and meaning. Identity relates to the capacity of
an object to distinguish itself from other things, presenting itself as a separate entity. Structure
expresses the spatial relationship or standards that are established from the object for the
observer, as well as for other objects. Meaning emanates from a practical or emotional
relationship between the object and the observer.
It also examines the image of the city and its elements, i.e., the path, the edge, the district,
the node, and the landmark. All these elements have, as reference, a relationship between object
and observer. The roads are channels for circulation along which the observer moves in the
habitual way, occasionally or potentially. The boundaries are linear elements corresponding to
permeable borders between different areas or regions that interrelate. The districts, medium-sized
or larger regions of a city, are recognized as having something in common and identifiable. The
hubs are intersections, strategic points, or places of the city and intensive foci to which the
observer travels. Landmarks are accentuated points that serve as external references for the
None of the element types cited above exists independently, isolated from reality. The
districts contain crossroads; they are demarcated by boundaries, crossed by roads and dotted with
landmark features. In other words, the elements overlap and interconnect constantly. There is an
interrelationship of parts to the whole in a superficial way, creating a vivid image. As they
assume functions, these parts of the whole acquire distinguishing features and stand out in the
landscape of the city among the other elements. Therefore, clarity of structure and uniqueness of
identity are considered strong symbols for the readability of a city represented by iconic
elements, landmarks.
The configuration of urban spaces has attributes that enable them to inform their users, with
greater or lesser ease, about where they are and how to move around with awareness to other
places because the landscape is composed of a set of elements that go beyond what can be
immediately seen and heard. Furthermore, the perception and interpretation of the spaces are
directly related to the past experiences of the observer, which are imprinted on their memories.
A particular visual quality is readability or imageability, which demonstrates the apparent
clarity of the cityscape, i.e., the ease with which the parties can be recognized and organized into
a coherent structure. Thus, a readable city would be one whose parishes, boundary signs, or roads
are easily identifiable and verifiable and can be grouped into overall structures.
Thomas Gordon Cullen (1971) in the Urban Landscape
Cullen influenced the field of urban planning, developing the term that gave rise to the book of
the same name, Paisagem Urbana [Urban Landscape] ([1961] 1971). This book is regarded as
one of the most original works on urban planning. Cullen created the concept of serial vision,
which defines the urban landscape as an interrelated series of spaces. His aesthetic approach to
urban design was based on sketches and drawings with a high-pictorial quality, almost like the
paintings of the Impressionist artists, in which the visual aspects of the landscape were highly
He admitted that issues of visual perception serve as the basis for any observation and refers
to the observer’s memory to defend the idea that the “vision has the power to invoke our
reminiscences and experiences, with all the corollary of emotions” (Cullen 1971, 10).
In this sense, it presents three fields of reflection that have to do with the discovery,
localization, and specificity of each place: Discovery is based on the idea of a route by means of
which a succession of images is mentioned. These images are always sustained by appeal to the
memory. The author calls this concept “serial vision,” which leads, in turn, to another
fundamental element of perception of the place, which is the ability of the observer to focus, i.e.,
the ability to locate himself or herself physically and psychologically in a space. This location
depends on the possibility of appropriation of the space, at first unknown, but then identified,
experienced, related to the memory of each one, and, in this sense, personified. Therefore, the
perception of vision is not a simple photograph but a process of a relationship between the
observer, whether an inhabitant or not, and each place.
For Cullen, there are three key aspects to consider:“Perspective: […]the urban landscape, in
the majority of cases, as a succession of surprises or sudden revelations, which is what is meant
by serial vision; locale is how our body has the habit of relating instinctively and continuously
with the environment; the sense of localization cannot be ignored [...]; and content: [...] this latter
aspect, relates to the constitution of the city itself, its color, texture, scale, or style, its nature, its
personality, and everything that makes it individual” (Cullen 1971, 193).
The visual impact of the city, the perspective, or serial vision of its inhabitants or visitors
creates a surplus of attractions for the whole collectivity as succession of surprises or sudden
Aldo Rossi (1995) in The Architecture of the City (1st Edition, 1966)
In 1966, Rossi published L’Architettura della città [The Architecture of the City] in which he
studies the city from the perspective of the historical problems and methods of description of
morphology of urban facts, their relations between the local facts and the construction of the city,
and also in the identification of the primary forces that act on cities in a permanent and universal
For Rossi, cities are the text of local history, which is presented by means of facts recorded
over time in the buildings and in the urban fabric, parameters of long duration. Thus, the city is
the collective memory of the people and is linked to facts and places; it is the “locus.”The
relationship between the “locus” and citizens is the predominant image, i.e., the architecture, the
landscape, and the great ideas that pervade the city and form its history.
An urban fact may be an historical monument, a street, or a district. The uniqueness and
individuality of these urban facts make them very similar to a work of art; it is the construction of
the material in a unique way, which can be analyzed, but not defined.
To analyze the city, it is important to define the physical site, the place where the urban facts
occur, in order to detect them. Therefore, to understand the city and study this set of elements
that comprise it, it is necessary to deconstruct it. Defining the study area is to choose a part of the
city or its historical features that coincide with an urban fact as it determines a phenomenon. By
determining the limits of the urban environment, the growth of the city can be identified, defining
the domains of the study area and the emergence of urban facts.
The elements for analysis of the city and the urban facts are based on the assertion that the
city is a work of art, the product of human action that transforms nature, adapting it to the needs
of society. The category is the manifestation of the sentiment and reason of a society, present in
architectural facts. It is the principle of the architecture and the city and characterizes the needs
that react to the techniques and functions, the style, the collective character, and the individual
moment of the architectural fact. To define district, the author uses the theory developed by
Lynch (1997), who defines it as a medium-sized or large area of a city, recognizable as having
common characteristics and peculiarities of various kinds. The residential area is related to the
urban form as it represents the way of life, customs, tastes, and habits of a people, which only
changes over very long periods of time. The location of the residence is related to geographical,
morphological, historical, and economic factors of the city. The monuments characterize the
nations, civilizations, and epochs and are represented by sets of monumental architectures that
express power, whether in the name of the state or of religion. They are elements of permanence
and become works of art, as they represent a value greater than the memory. The old city, to
conceptualize it, refers to monuments and all the urban constructions because they are signs of
reference in time and space. The process of transformation causes the old city to give way to the
modern, replacing the physical reality of the city as a time of permanence of its political and
institutional duty.
Roberto Boullón (2002) in the Planning of the Urban Tourism Space
Boullón proposes an empirical method for observing and analyzing the space produced by
tourism and from systematic procedures, establishing its physical arrangement, in which a ourism
center is represented by the whole urban agglomeration that “has its own territory, or within its
radius of influence, tourism attractions of sufficient type and importance to prompt a tourist trip”
(Boullón 2002, 69).
The work Planificacíon del espacio turístico [Design of Tourist Space] (1985) is used to
guide studies through the model of supply and demand and is focused on the tourism market. The
tourism space is the result of the presence and territorial distribution of the tourist attractions.
According to Boullón (2002, 79), “The tourism heritage, plus the enterprise and tourism
infrastructure, are sufficient to define the tourism space of any country.”
To define the qualities and guide the reading of the urban landscape by the tourist, and for
the tourist to understand the differences of each place, capture its beauty, and form value
judgments of what they have just seen, Boullón (2002) requires the use of the elements of
analysis of the city landscape defined by Lynch (1997). As part of the principle that not all cities
have the same degree of difficulty to capture their urban landscape, the Boullón indicates that the
reading is linked to the dimensions, outlines, topography, and type of architecture.
He identifies the buildings and open spaces as focal points, observing the relationship that
exists between them in terms of organization and graphical representation or physical layout. He
classifies the focal points into public areas, which correspond to the paths and nodal points of
Lynch (1997); these are open or covered spaces for public use, to which the inhabitants of the
city and the tourist can come and go freely. He differentiates the paths of the nodal points by the
nature of the connection, such as an intersection of streets or a corner. He identifies the element
landmarks as urban artifacts or buildings that, due to their size or the quality of their form, stand
out in the landscape and act as point of reference for the observer, e.g., a huge building, a
monument, a fountain, a propaganda poster, a church, or a public information kiosk.
For Lynch (1997), districts are spaces of a city with a two-dimensional extension. For
Boullón (2002), they are relatively large sections of the city to which tourists can enter and move
around; sectors, meanwhile, are smaller parts of the city than the districts, but with the same
characteristics. These spaces are the remaining parts of an old district, whose original buildings
have been replaced by modern ones; their borders are an element that divides two different
districts, defining the extremes or margins of part of a city, corresponding to the limits of Lynch
(1997). The routes define the roads for circulation, selected for the tourist traffic of vehicles and
pedestrians in their trips to visit the tourist attractions, as well as entering and leaving the city.
Their main function is to structure the tourist complex, i.e., the vehicle routes are those that must
be selected as part of the city tours, and the pedestrian routes are those that connect the nearby
tourism attractions and define circuits within the neighborhoods.
New Theoretical Foundations
The insertion of concepts by Portas (2011) and Argan (1998) is due to the fact that the ideas of
both are linked to the School of Venice, which addresses the elements that comprise the city, and
the preeminence of perpetuation of the memory and the social identity contained in the built
In addition, both express in their works the problems experienced by architecture and
urbanism in the post-war period as well as the influences of the modern movement in the
European cities.
Nuno Portas in the City as Architecture
Portas wrote A Cidade como Arquitetura [The City as Architecture] in 1968, a time in which the
author made use of part of the categories of analysis of the city by Rossi ([1966] 1995) to study
the physical environment and the changes that it has undergone over time due to the need for new
Portas considers that the elements that make up and form the cities are bestowed not only
with functions but alter the morphology of the landscape as they promote the emergence of
visual, tactile, and shadowy information. These changes are guided by attractiveness, the need of
the workforce to travel, or the agents of unidirectional development. By starting the process of
appropriation of the space, information about the environmental and historical preexistences is
important. This is because the adoption of this attitude ignores the dilapidation of the patrimony
and real estate exploration based on profit.
These relations that define the architecture of the city are not based only on urban planning
but also on the urban architecture, which defines the streets, the land lots, and implantation of
buildings of public interest. The areas planned to comprise the most extensive and stable spaces
of the city have the problem of habitat, where the typological and representative choices of these
units correspond to what is called area-residence, dominated by the function of a residential
The complex and structuring bodies, the centers, are the primary elements of Rossi ([1966]
1995), since they are key to the composition of the city. It is in the center where the distributing
elements or the elements of internal or external circulation are concentrated. They are the
organized sets of public or private, much more changeable than the residential areas. The spaces
of territorial units, by similarity, that maintain the balance between the residence and the center
are the “districts” of Rossi ([1966] 1995). They are the zones that provide a balance between the
center and the residence.
The classification of the city into large elements is corroborated by Aldo Rossi ([1966]
1995), where the city is structured by a large backbone, with places that remain throughout the
changes, keeping the structure recognizable, “the theory of permanence,” of spatial continuity,
that pervades the time and can accelerate or cross time, such as the monumental buildings.
The old town had a process of spontaneous design, the day-to-day, deciding on the
architecture of the city by the architecture of the building. This makes the entire city a
When writing about the importance of maintaining the old areas, Portas (2011) stated:
“Preserve by renewing, or restore by revitalizing.” Portas was not only writing of those already
consolidated as historical, but also of those that have valuable typologies, albeit not monumental.
As a result of the pressures exerted by large real estate developers, devastation occurred in
various cities around the world. Buildings were decimated to make way for wide avenues and
luxurious constructions; they were preserved only in monumental or typical areas, alongside the
The value of an old area is not only in the buildings, but in the location and the centrality for
those who live and work there. There are conflicts between the vehicles that need to circulate
alongside the commerce and offices—the roads are not wide enough and were not built for this
purpose. This generates a framework that tends to drag these centers to decadence. Applying
solutions such as reserved roadways has led to good results, although they often generate conflict
with the traders by prioritizing pedestrians.
It is worth pointing out that Portas is emphatic when referring to the old areas as living
spaces, subject to change, and not “dead” museums. Therefore, to safeguard the urban life, it is
essential to create public policies that will enable the specific urban plans of the cities and ensure
the survival of their historical patrimony.
Giulio Carlo Argan in the History of Art as the History of the City
In this work, Argan (1998) emphasizes the need to preserve the works of art, including the city,
so as not to separate them from life or remove them from men’s consciences. This view is based
on the principle that the center of a city must be understood as an historical reality, with social
content and plurality of functions. Asite that cannot be immobilized or its functions violated.
As an admirer of the Venetian School, Alberti (1966) cites and argues that the architecture is
an artificial body inserted in the mass of natural bodies. He considers them artificial in that they
are produced by the mind and human action, so that its categories are formed with the reflection,
definition, and classification of phenomena.
Alberti appropriates the concepts discussed by Rossi ([1966] 1995) in his publication A
Arquitetura da Cidade [The Architecture of the City], and also of categories for analyzing the
landscape of the city, such as “locus,” monuments, area-residence, old area, lots, and urban
Both Rossi and Argan developed research on the issues involving the urban spaces and their
problems. In his work, Rossi ([1966] 1995) writes about urban facts, which are in permanent and
universal action within the cities, and the historical problems linked to these urban facts. He also
writes on the private memory that is reflected in the daily life of the cities.
It is worth emphasizing the importance of understanding that the city should be maintained
as a whole and not as parts, as an urban zone and a rural zone, or as an “historical” zone and a
“modern” zone, because these spaces are part of the whole urban environment.
For Rossi ([1966] 1995) the urban facts, such as churches, private homes, monuments, and
squares, are natural, singular, and unique. They are parts that make up the city. They divide these
facts into area-residence and primary elements, i.e., a particular sphere and a private sphere.
Argan (1998) and Rossi ([1966] 1995) affirm that particular forms are works produced by
human hands and testify to the memory and values. As such, they constitute artistic object and
fact. The city is something human.
They understand the process of dynamization of the city as continuity, where the
development of the historical city and that of the modern city occur simultaneously. The old
town should not become obsolete and stagnant; its monuments should be seen as artistic facts
even though they are outside of the museum. Thus, the new town is not opposed to the historic
The Method
This research was grounded on Hakanson’s published works from 1987, which define social
networks as a set of elements tied down by means of specific relations. These relations are
structured in defined roles, attributions, and relationships between actors. On the other hand, the
structured net power is characterized by the structuration process, heterogeneity, hierarchy, and
This study dialogue with the social network analysis theories, which derived from social
psychology researches, has been used to evaluate the child behavior as a context and social
patterns product (Freeman 1996).
In order to analyze individuals and groups behavior, Freeman (1996) separates the centrality
concept into categories, such as centrality of level (number of bonds between the network
participants), centrality of proximity (distance between participants), and centrality of
intermediation (intermediate bonds between authors indirectly).
There are other perspectives over the relationship between centrality and power. However,
the basic principle of network theories is related to the position of an agent inside the social
structure, the impact over his behavior and well-being, as well as over the other subgroups in the
To authors such as Burt (1987), the network analysis may be relational or positional, stating
that the relational models are grounded on the identification of regions connected within the
totality or the most part of agents is connected between themselves. The positions are grounded
on algebraic techniques whose objective is the identification of agents structurally equivalents,
pair of agents connected to other parties.
Some proponents of the aggregation techniques agree that members of specific groups—
clicks—must present similar attitudes and behavior. The graphic-theoretical clicks are based on
direct bonds between agents, whereas the blocks, cohesion models, and other positional groups
are based on structural equivalence. Both models conduct to different previsions concerning the
sources of influence and of interpersonal similarities. The relations between the clicks start from
the coherent bonds between agents. The blocks, which are mostly used by network analysis, tend
to influence one another.
Burt (1987) suggests that structurally equivalent agents, because they take the same places in
social structures, compete for the favors of other fellow. Due to that competition, they tend to
mimic the acts of their structurally equivalent pairs. Some of the vast examples that support the
cohesion model are the studies of Moore (1979), Friedkin (1984) and Laudmann and Knoke
Therefore, the network analysis is considered an instrument of critical evaluation of the
structures or structural ambients and its relation with actors, because it handles with relational
data, which express connections between objects, us, individuals, or diversified groups whose
focus disregards individual attributes (Wasserman and Faust 1994; Hanneman 2001).
The Analysis of Social Networks
The elements of analysis selected for this study were grouped in Table 1, which shows the
relationship of the authors with their respective categories of landscape analysis.It is worth
emphasizing that Table 1 shows the categories of Rossini’s (2012)method and of the new authors
added to this study.
Table 1: Relationship of the Authors with the Categories of Landscape Analysis
Authors and Categories Selected for the Study
Category Review of Landscape Foundations Rossini’s (2012) Method New Foundations
Rossi Boullón
Urban Fact
Public Space
Building of Public Interest
Residential Area
Old Area
Study Area
Urban Space
Source(s): Developed by the Authors, 2014, Based on the Works of Cullen (1971), Rossi ([1966] 1995), Lynch (1997),
Argan (1998), Boullón (2002) and Portas (2011)
The categories of analysis, listed above, have been represented in network through
sociograms, where they appear positioned in the network by means of links or connections. In the
sociogram network, the black dots represent authors and the gray dots represent the categories of
analysis. They are shown in Figure 1, positioned in the network by means of links or connections
that have been established at which time it was possible to graphically represent these
Figure 1: Presentation of the Network Formed by Connections of the Authors in Their Respective Categories of Analysis.
Transcription of the Terms of the Sociogram: landmark (marco); nodes (pontos nodais); urban fact (fato urbano); public
space (logradouro); route (rota); street (rua); track (arruamento); path (caminho); locus (local); district (bairro);
monument (monumento); building of public interest (ed. de interesse público); limit (limite); border (borda); residential
area (área residencial); old area (área antiga); study area (área de estudo); lots (lotes); sectors (setores); urban space
(espaço urbano); perspective (ótica); location (roteiro); content (conteúdo)
Source: Developed by the authors, 2014
These two groups led to a “two mode” network matrix or network of “affiliation.”It allows
the interpretation and reading of the sociogram, which considers the ratio of relationships of
authors with the categories of analysis and also the affinity between the authors.
In Figure 1 showing the sociogram network, the blacks dots represent authors, the gray dots
the categories of analysis, and the red dots the categories of review that relate to more than one
It is also possible to see the categories of analysis that indicate the conceptual ties between
the authors, i.e., this sociogram highlights the categories that serve as links between the authors.
Analyzing the position that each author occupies in the network (not in terms of place, but in
terms of connections established between the authors), it is read who the author is (also referred
to as actor) that provides the largest number of connections and thus presents a greater influence
on the other actors.
The actor who has the largest number of connections, regardless of the source of the
information, is the one who can choose between several alternative forms of access to obtain the
information of interest to him or her. This situation is associated with the degree of centrality of
the actor.
In this research, the actor that assumes greater importance before the number of connections
established with the other is Rossi ([1966] 1995). Rossi proposes a greater number of categories
to analyze the landscape of the city, which are referenced in the works of some of the actors of
this research. He also makes use of the categories cited in works prior to his own, creating a
network of more complete bonds. The categories that are most in evidence, and the presence of
theses in the site analysis, indicate potential areas for the development of cultural tourism,
namely: border, content, location, perspective, district, limit, study area, residential area, locus,
and land lots.
Figure 2: Two-Mode Sociogram Network Showing the Connections between
Historians through the Categories of Research Analysis.
Transcription of the Terms of the Sociogram: landmark (marco); nodes (pontos nodais); urban fact (fato urbano);
public space (logradouro); route (rota); street (rua); track (arruamento); path (caminho); locus (local);
district (bairro); monument (monumento); building of public interest (ed. de interesse público); limit (limite);
border (borda); residential area (área residencial); old area (área antiga); study area (área de estudo); lots (lotes);
sectors (setores); urban space (espaço urbano); perspective (ótica); location (roteiro); content (conteúdo)
Source: Developed by the Authors, 2014
In the sociogram in Figure 3, we see that Rossi ([1966] 1995) is the actor who has the
greatest degree of centrality of this network.
Figure 3: Measurement of the Connections between the Authors in the Network, According to the Degree of Centrality.
Transcription of the terms of the sociogram: landmark (marco); nodes (pontos nodais); urban fact (fato urbano); public
space (logradouro); route (rota); street (rua); track (arruamento); path (caminho); locus (local); district (bairro);
monument (monumento); building of public interest (ed. de interesse público); limit (limite); border (borda); residential
area (área residencial); old area (área antiga); study area (área de estudo); lots (lotes); sectors (setores); urban space
(espaço urbano); perspective (ótica); location (roteiro); content (conteúdo)
Source: Developed by the Authors, 2014
Conclusions and Recommendations
With this research, it was possible to identify the author whose theoretical reference exerts a
greater influence on all those who were elected to compose the theoretical body of this article.
Thus, the research indicated the categories of landscape analysis that are essential for reading the
tourism potential and that comprised the built landscape of historical centers, a theme that was
also discussed during the drafting of Rossini’s (2012) method.
This matrix of categories of landscape analysis, which constitutes a new method, when
applied, will indicate built differentials, once abandoned or forgotten. It will also help society to
understand the importance of appropriating material goods as an opportunity to preserve and
recover the memory of the past, so that future generations can experience them, both to
understand the cultural characteristics of other peoples and to keep alive the identity of these
societies from the past that have contributed to the construction of the future.
The accuracy of historical facts has become raw material for tourism entrepreneurs. The
landscape that was being changed by urban facts that have taken place over the time, which left
their marks and configure the present urban environment, came to be considered a work of art.
Thus, the place, the image, and the identity came to be fundamental parts for the
operationalization of the dissemination and promotion of local culture.In addition, the
consolidation of this scenario will instigate the preservation of the built patrimony, valuing them
and promoting an understanding that these signs record the past in order to connect tourism with
the immaterial culture and the city.
Therefore, it is a fact that the cities that still preserve their individual characteristics may
emerge on the world scene. This is because the cultural tourism segment looks for these unique
differentials, attractions, which can contribute to the construction of new cultural facilities.
It is also noted that the Italian School of Architecture, here represented under the auspices of
the work of Rossi ([1966] 1995), exercised a great influence on the scholars who permeated the
modernist movement worldwide.
It is recommended that the works developed in the past can be revised, supplemented, and
updated so that they can be improved, because the scientific product is dynamic; the paradigms
of today will not be the same tomorrow.
This work arose out of research funded by the CAPES, Brazil.
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Dr. Luciano Torres Tricárico: Teacher and Researcher, Postgraduate Program in Tourism and
Hospitality, University of Vale do Itajaí, Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil
Dr. Diva de Mello Rossini: Teacher and Researcher, Postgraduate Program in Tourism and
Hospitality, University of Vale do Itajaí, Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil
Dr. Carlos Alberto Tomelin: Teacher and Researcher, Postgraduate Program in Tourism and
Hospitality, University of Vale do Itajaí, Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil
Dr. Tania Beisl Branches: Researcher, Postgraduate in Urbanism, University of Lisbon, Lisbon,
Lusitânia, Portugal