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Middle East­Key Terms The religion based on the life, death and resurrection of Jesus, Christianity who is accepted as the savior or Messiah foretold in the Old Testament of the Bible. A series of religious wars fought between Christians and Muslims Crusades from the late 1000s to the mid­ 1200s Cuneiform Wedge­shaped writing of the ancient Sumerians
Basic duties of Muslims, followers of Islam, including: 1. belief in only one God, Allah, and Muhammed, his prophet; 2. bow toward Mecca (their holy city) and pray five times daily; Five Pillars of Wisdom 3. give alms or money to the poor; 4. fast during Ramadan, the ninth month of their calendar; 5. make a pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime. Oldest written system of laws. They were created by King Hammurabi’s Code Hammurabi of Babylonia in the mid 18th century BCE and placed on stones tablets for all to see.
Hieroglyphics A system of writing invented by ancient Egyptians which uses pictures for concepts and ideas. Muhammad’s flight from Mecca to Hijra [hegira] Medina in 622 Palestine [modern day Israel], a Holy Land land holy to Jews, Christians, and Muslims Uprising of Palestinian youth in Intifada the territory held by Israel
The Muslim religion based on the teachings of Mohammed, whom they consider the prophet. It is a Islam monotheistic religion whose book of faith and scriptures is the Koran. Movement by Muslim reformers who oppose westernization and Islamic Fundamentalism want to apply Islamic principles to problems in their nations Religion of the Jews, based on Old Testament teachings and a belief in one God (monotheism) Judaism whom they call Yahweh. Their book of faith and guidance is the Torah ("the law"). Code of law organized by the Justinian Code Byzantine emperor Justinian in the 500s
After WWI, a territory that was Mandate Monotheistic administered by a foreign power Believing in one God Mosque Muslim house of worship The development of agriculture and the domestication of animals as a food source. This led to the Neolithic Revolution development of permanent settlements and the start of civilization.
A trade group that attempts to set OPEC [Organization of Petroleum world oil prices by controlling oil Exporting Countries] production One time terrorist organization, now considered to be a legitimate PLO [Palestinian Liberation Organization] political body whose goals have been to create a nation­state for the displaced Palestinians. The PLO was lead by Yasir Arafat War in 1991 prompted by the Persian Gulf War Iraqi invasion of Kuwait Quran [Koran] The sacred scriptures of Islam Sharia The system of Islamic law
One of the two main divisions of Shiite Islam One of the two main divisions of Sunni Islam Deliberate use of unpredictable violence, especially against Terrorism civilians, to gain revenge or achieve political goals Movement dedicated to building a Zionism Jewish state in Palestine