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5.2
Case 1: One layer soil with no pore water effects
Case 1 is a homogenous, isotropic soil layer with the phreatic surface assumed to be low
enough to not have an effect on the embankment (shown in Figure 5.2). The entry range
(where the slip circle enters the embankment) was defined as being from (4, 15) to (10, 15)
and the exit range was set to (28, 6) to (34, 5); these ranges were kept constant for each
baseline case.
Elevation (m)
15
10
5
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Distance (m)
Figure 5.2: Case 1 embankment geometry
The embankment was tested under drained and undrained conditions using effective and total
stress parameters, respectively.
Table 5.1: Soil properties
cu (kPa)
20
c′ (kPa)
0
Total stress parameters (undrained)
𝜙u (°)
𝛾𝑏 (kN/m3)
𝛽 (°)
Effective stress parameters (drained)
𝛾𝑏 (kN/m3)
𝜙′ (°)
𝛽 (°)
0
35
18
18
26.6
26.6
The angle of repose (𝛽) of 26.6° represents an embankment profiled to a gradient of 1V:2H.
The failure slip circle was tested with five slices and 20 slices, separately. These parameters
were used for each baseline case. Appendix B shows a brief analysis of the number of slices
used in the analysis versus the factor of safety which concludes that they give an acceptable
upper and lower bound to the number of slices required for analysis.
51