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Figure 4.6: Bishop and Morgenstern’s charts for stability coefficients m and n for 𝑐′𝛾 𝐻 =
0.025 and 𝑛𝑑 = 1.25 (Murthy, 2002) ...................................................................................... 30
Figure 4.7: Bishop and Morgenstern’s charts for stability coefficients m and n for 𝑐′𝛾 𝐻 =
0.05 and 𝑛𝑑 = 1.00 (Murthy, 2002) ........................................................................................ 31
Figure 4.8: Bishop and Morgenstern’s charts for stability coefficients m and n for 𝑐′𝛾 𝐻 =
0.05 and 𝑛𝑑 = 1.25 (Murthy, 2002) ........................................................................................ 31
Figure 4.9: Bishop and Morgenstern’s charts for stability coefficients m and n for 𝑐′𝛾 𝐻 =
0.05 and 𝑛𝑑 = 1.50 (Murthy, 2002) ........................................................................................ 32
Figure 4.10: Spencer’s stability charts for different pore pressure ratios (Abramson, 2002) .. 33
Figure 4.11: Janbu stability chart for 𝜙 = 0 soils (Abramson, 2002) ...................................... 34
Figure 4.12: Method of slices ................................................................................................... 36
Figure 4.13: Free body diagram of ith slice- Fellenius method................................................ 39
Figure 4.14: Free body diagram of ith slice- Bishop's simplified method ............................... 40
Figure 4.15: Free body diagram of ith slice- Morgenstern and Price method .......................... 41
Figure 4.16: Free body diagram of ith slice- Spencer’s method .............................................. 42
Figure 4.17: Free body diagram of ith slice- Janbu's simplified method ................................. 44
Figure 4.18: Correction Factor (f0) (Duncan & Wright, 2005) ................................................ 45
Figure 5.1: Baseline cases ........................................................................................................ 50
Figure 5.2: Case 1 embankment geometry ............................................................................... 51
Figure 5.3: Case 1 most critical slip circle in undrained SLOPE/W analysis with 20 slices ... 53
Figure 5.4 : Distribution of failure circles analysed (GEO-SLOPE, 2007) .............................. 53
Figure 5.5: Case 1 most critical slip circle in drained SLOPE/W analysis with 20 slices ....... 54
Figure 5.6: Case 2 embankment geometry with phreatic surface............................................. 55
Figure 5.7: Most critical slip circle in undrained SLOPE/W analysis with 20 slices............... 56
Figure 5.8: Most critical slip circle in drained SLOPE/W analysis with 20 slices................... 57
Figure 5.9: Case 3 embankment geometry showing two soils and no phreatic surface. .......... 59
Figure 5.10: Most critical slip circle in undrained SLOPE/W analysis with 20 slices............. 60
Figure 5.11: Most critical slip circle in drained SLOPE/W analysis with 20 slices................. 61
Figure 5.12: Case 4 embankment geometry showing two soils and phreatic surface as entered
into SLOPE/W .......................................................................................................................... 62
Figure 5.13: Most critical slip circle in undrained SLOPE/W analysis with 20 slices............. 63
Figure 5.14: Most critical slip circle in drained SLOPE/W analysis with 20 slices................. 64
Figure 6.1: Most critical slip circles for undrained cohesion 1 kPa in SLOPE/W .................. 67
Figure 6.2: Most critical slip circles for cu = 300 kPa in SLOPE/W ....................................... 68
Figure 6.3: Change in the factor of safety arising from changes in the undrained cohesion ... 69
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