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Figure 4.10: Spencer’s stability charts for different pore pressure ratios (Abramson, 2002)
An iterative process is required to determine the factor of safety. The first iteration assumes a
factor of safety and calculates
𝑐′
𝐹𝛾𝐻
, then using the stability charts, the mobilised friction
tan 𝜙
angle can be found. The factor of safety is then equal to tan 𝜙 , if this differs from the assumed
factor of safety then further iterations are required.
4.1.1
𝑑
Janbu 1968
Janbu (1968) developed stability charts for different cases including stratified soils, cases
where surcharge or tension cracks are present, undrained short-term total stress behaviour,
drained long-term effective stress behaviour, and different water levels outside and inside the
slope (Briaud, 2013). The stability charts for undrained soils are shown here:
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