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Figure 2.7: Potential critical failure surfaces
The failure is rotational as the failure mass is in the shape of an arc rotating about an
instantaneous centre of rotation. It is most commonly caused by changes to the phreatic
surface or material permeability, settlement of the foundation, ground vibration, or a steep
slope angle (US EPA, 1994).
There are many methods for determining the factor of safety of potential slip circles
including: Bishop’s simplified, Fellenius (1936), Janbu (1954), and Morgenstern and Price’s
(1965) methods. These methods are explained in Section 4.3.
Figure 2.8: Example of rotational sliding in an embankment adjacent to a water main in Sheoaks, Victoria (CCMA,