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Chapter 4 section 3 page 124
I. The Persian Wars
A. Persian Empire v. Greek City-States
1. Persian armies defeated the Ionians
(located in Asia Minor)
2. Athens and other city-states sent
warships to help the Ionians, but they
were not successful
3. The Persians decided to punish the
Greeks (Athens) for helping
B. Battle at Marathon
1. Led by Darius I, the Persians sent an
army across the Aegean Sea to
destroy Athens
2. The Athenians, though greatly
outnumbered, defeated the Persian
3. The legend of Pheidippides
II. Second Persian War- 480 B.C.
1. After Marathon, the Persians
withdrew to Asia Minor. They
returned 10 years later under the
command of Xerxes
2. The Battle of Thermopylae –land
3. The decisive battle took place in the
strait of Salamis(sea battle) a narrow
body of water between Athens and
the island of Salamis
4. Persian ships were no match for the
smaller, quicker Greek ships
5. The outnumbered Greek fleet
destroyed almost the entire Persian
minute 3
6. The Persians returned to Asia Minor
for good
7. Athens emerges as the most powerful
Greek city-state
III. The Peloponnesian War – 430 B.C.
A. Athens (led by Pericles) forms the
Delian League – an alliance of Greek
city-states formed to protect Greece
from Persia
B. Some Greek city-states (led by Sparta)
formed an alliance called the
Peloponnesian League
C. The war lasted from 431 – 404 B.C.
1. Sparta asked and received money
(gold) from Persia to build a fleet of
ships. In return, Sparta would
return Ionia to Persia
2. Bad luck for Athens
a. A plague wipes out 1/3 of Athens,
including Pericles
b. Athenian allies switched sides
D. Athens surrenders in 404 B.C.
IV. Effects of the War
A. The war brought hardships to both
1. Populations declined
2. Fighting destroyed many fields
and orchards
3. High unemployment
B. The Greeks would eventually be
conquered by the Macedonians