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The Scientific
Geocentric Theory
Earth is the center of the universe
Believed to be true until the Renaissance
Aligned with the church’s teachings
Nicolaus Copernicus
Polish scholar
Published On the Revolutions of the
Heavenly Spheres (1543)
Heliocentric theory- sun centered: goes
against the church and ancient
Tycho Brahe
Supported Copernicus’ theory
Gathered evidence by observing the night sky for years
Johannes Kepler
Calculated the orbits of planets
Said planets move in an ellipse (oval shape)
Galileo Galilei
Assembled an astronomical telescope
His discoveries caused an uproar because they
contradicted ancient views of the universe
Tried for heresy
“And yet it moves”- referring to the earth after he
was forced to renounce his theories
Galileo’s telescope
Scientific Method
By the early 1600s observation and
experimentation had emerged in the scientific
Renaissance scientists rediscovered Greek
philosopher, Plato
The scientific method advance the world because
experiments could be tested and retested
Why is it circular?
Revolutionary Thinkers
Francis Bacon
René Descartes
experimentation and
Emphasized human
reasoning as the best
road to understanding
Some historians believe
that he actually wrote
Shakespeare’s works
“I think, therefore, I am”
Breakthroughs in medicine
Andreas Vesalius- On the Structure of the Human Body
Researched autopsies
Ambroise Paré- French physician
Developed new surgical techniques, artificial limbs
William Harvey- English scholar
described the circulation of the blood, how the
heart pumps
Anton van Leeuwenhoek- Dutch inventor
Perfected the microscope
First human to see cells and microorganisms
Robert Boyle- English chemist
Explained that all matter is composed of
particles that act in knowable ways
Isaac Newton
Gravity- the force that keeps planets in orbit
Calculus- branch of mathematics that
explains Newton’s laws