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Francis Bacon, Rene Descartes and the Scientific Method 1. State a question or problem. 2. Form a hypothesis. 3. Design and conduct experiments to test the hypothesis. 4. Measure the data from the experiment 5. Analyze the data to see if the hypothesis is correct. Antoine von Leeuwenhoek and the Microscope • With his microscope, Leewenhoek was the first person to see bacteria. Evangelista Torricelli • Torricelli invented the first barometer, filled with mercury, to measure the pressure in the atmosphere. Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit F • Fahrenheit improved thermometers by putting mercury in them, and created the Fahrenheit temperature scale. Nicolaus Copernicus and Johannes Kepler • In the 1500s, Copernicus proposed a new idea – the sun is the center of the universe. • Kepler built on this idea by suggesting that the planets orbit elliptically, not in circles. Galileo Galilei • By building a more powerful telescope, Galileo gave proof to the Copernican theory that the sun is the center of the universe. • Because of his findings, Galileo was found guilty by the Inquisition and put under house arrest for the rest of his life. Isaac Newton • By watching an apple fall from a tree, Newton came up with the idea of gravity. • He stated all physical objects have a force between them, and the amount of force depended on their masses and the distance between them. • This theory helped prove the theories of the universe by explaining why planets and moons stay in orbit.