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Francis Bacon, Rene Descartes
and the Scientific Method
1. State a question or problem.
2. Form a hypothesis.
3. Design and conduct experiments to test
the hypothesis.
4. Measure the data from the experiment
5. Analyze the data to see if the
hypothesis is correct.
Antoine von Leeuwenhoek and the
• With his microscope,
Leewenhoek was the
first person to see
Evangelista Torricelli
• Torricelli invented the first barometer, filled
with mercury, to measure the pressure in the
Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit
• Fahrenheit improved
thermometers by
putting mercury in
them, and created the
Fahrenheit temperature
Nicolaus Copernicus and
Johannes Kepler
• In the 1500s,
Copernicus proposed
a new idea – the sun
is the center of the
• Kepler built on this
idea by suggesting
that the planets orbit
elliptically, not in
Galileo Galilei
• By building a more powerful telescope, Galileo
gave proof to the Copernican theory that the sun is
the center of the universe.
• Because of his findings, Galileo was found guilty by
the Inquisition and put under house arrest for the
rest of his life.
Isaac Newton
• By watching an apple fall
from a tree, Newton came up
with the idea of gravity.
• He stated all physical
objects have a force between
them, and the amount of
force depended on their
masses and the distance
between them.
• This theory helped prove the
theories of the universe by
explaining why planets and
moons stay in orbit.