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Ptolemy believed that the earth was the center of the universe, and the sun, moon, planets, and stars circled the earth. “Geocentric Theory” Copernicus came up with the “heliocentric” or sun-centered theory of the universe. He believed that the earth, moon, stars, and other planets circled the sun. Martin Luther disagreed with many of the practices of the Catholic Church, such as the selling of indulgences. Galileo used careful observation and experimentation when studying Copernicus’s theory. The technique of Depth Perspective--making objects and people look 3D and realistic---was used by Renaissance artists and still used today. Microscope Telescope Barometer Thermometer It was easier for trade and transportation. Michelangelo was a painter, sculptor, architect, and poet during the Renaissance. He is famous for his sculptures: The David, The Pieta. He is also famous for painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican in Rome, Italy. Humanism The printing press helped to spread new ideas and thinking across Europe. People began to question the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church due to new discoveries in science. More people also had the opportunity to learn to read and write. The Scientific Method Church officials feared that science would lead people to doubt key elements of their faith, thus undermining the church’s influence and power.