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The study of celestial objects that
originate outside of the Earth’s
 Astronomy is the oldest of the sciences
The belief that
the position of the
Sun and the Stars
affect your life
Studied the skies for:
 Navigation
 Telling time
 Planting and harvesting crops
 Making Calendars
 Worshiping their gods
Built observatories
called ziggurats
 Named brighter stars
and planets
Tracked the movement of planets
 Kept records of star and planet
Aligned their pyramids with
the Sun and stars
 Kept
records of
eclipses, comets, meteor
showers and supernova
Mayans and Aztecs
 Made calendars that included the
Moon, the Sun, the stars and Venus
First astronomical
instrument: Astrolabe
Earth is a cylinder
floating in space
and the Sun, Moon,
stars and planets are
wheels filled with fire
Earth is a sphere: NOT FLAT
 Earth is the center of the
solar system
Tried to prove that the Earth is a sphere
Earth is the center and is too big to move
Calculated the size of the Sun and the Moon
 The Sun is the center of the solar system; NOT
Used geometry to calculate the
circumference of the Earth
Made maps: north, south, east and west
 Also Latitude and longitude
Made the first Sun-centered model of
the solar system
The laws of planetary motion
 Planet’s orbits are elliptical, not circular
Invented the first
 Discovered moons
around Jupiter and
the Saturn's rings
 Mapped the moon
Law of universal gravity and laws of
motion explained how planets orbit
Discovered Uranus
 Spent his life improving
Theory of relativity
 E = mc²
 Space and time curve in the
presence of matter
Discovered evidence to
help prove that the
universe is expanding
 Red shift data
Catholic priest and
physics professor
 Proposed the Big Bang