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Solar System / Space Unit Study Guide For end of unit test 1. A diagram of the Sun and the planets from our solar system will be given. The student will have to identify which planet represents Earth. In order to do this, students must know the order of the planets from the Sun. Remember this phrase: My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nachos. (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune) 2. Jupiter has a giant red spot which represents a huge storm. 3. The earth is different from any other planet in our solar system because water can exist in all three physical states: ice, liquid, and vapor. 4. A new moon is caused by sunlight hitting the side of the moon we cannot see from the earth. 5. Students must be able to describe and label the different moon phases. 6. Earth rotating on its axis creates day and night. 7. The sun does not move through the sky, but stays in one place. 8. A telescope is used to make the moon and the planets look closer. 9. The sun appears to rise and set each day because the earth rotates on its axis. 10. If the earth moved farther away from the sun, the weather would be colder. 11. It takes the earth about 1 year to make one complete orbit around the sun. 12. The period of time that is the longest is from one full moon until the next full moon. 13. Astronomers view objects in space through scientific instruments known as telescopes. 14. The motion of Earth around the sun most affects the cycles of the seasons. 15. The sun heats the earth unevenly, making the poles cold and the tropics hot, because the tropics face more directly toward the sun. 16. The Northern Hemisphere experiences summer in June, July, and August because it is tilted toward the sun during these months. 17. Stars are different colors because they are different temperatures. 18.A pattern of stars in the sky is called a constellation. 19.One way to the tell the difference between a star and a planet is that planets don’t twinkle. 20. Astronomers call the largest stars in the sky supergiants.