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5.5 Multicellular Life
Cells work together to carry out complex
5.5 Multicellular Life
Multicellular organisms depend on interactions among
different cell types.
root system
• Tissues are groups of cells that perform
a similar function.
• Organs are groups of tissues that
perform a specific or related function.
• Organ systems are groups of organs
that carry out similar functions.
shoot system
5.5 Multicellular Life
Specialized cells perform specific functions.
• Cells develop into their mature forms through the process
of cell differentiation.
• Cells differ because different combinations of genes are
• A cell’s location in an embryo helps determine how it will
Outer: skin cells
Middle: bone cells
Inner: intestines
5.5 Multicellular Life
Stem cells are unique body cells.
• Defining Characteristics:
– Stem cells have the ability to
- divide and renew themselves for long periods of time.
- remain undifferentiated in form
- develop into a variety of specialized cell types
5.5 Multicellular Life
• Stem cells are classified into three potential types.
– Totipotent:Can be grown into any other cell type
– Pluripotent: Can be grown into any cell type but a
totipotent cell
– Multipotent: can be grown into cells of a closely
related cell family
5.5 Multicellular Life
• Stem cells come from adults and embryos.
1. Adult Stem Cells: partially undifferentiated cells
located among the specialized cells of many organs
and tissues.
– Adult stem cells can be hard to isolate and grow.
– The use of adult stem cells may prevent transplant
2. Embryonic Stem Cells: taken from clusters of
undifferentiated cells in a 3-5 day old embryo.
– Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and can be
grown indefinitely in culture.
– The use of embryonic stem cells raises ethical issues
5.5 Multicellular Life
Embryonic Stem Cells
First, an egg is fertilized by a sperm cell in a petri dish. The egg divides, forming
an inner cell mass. These cells are then removed and grown with nutrients.
Scientists try to control how the cells specialize by adding or removing certain
5.5 Multicellular Life
• The use of stem cells offers many currently realized and
potential benefits.
– Stem cells are used to treat leukemia and lymphoma.
– Stem cells may cure disease or replace damaged
– Stem cells may revolutionize the drug development
5.5 Multicellular Life
5.5 Multicellular Life
After Debate
Claim- Should stem cells be used? (yes or no)
Evidence- (cite evidence from your research)
Reasoning- (Explain the evidence)
When done: Staple this to your research page(s).
Due tomorrow:
• Cell Size Lab
• Pipe Cleaner Mitosis lab
• Onion Cell Lab
• Cancer Lab
• Hydra Lab
• Stem Cell Debate and CER paragraph