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● Earthquake: a sudden and violent shaking
of Earth, caused by movements within the
crust or volcanism
● Ex. San Francisco Earthquake in California
Epicenter - The point directly above the focus or source of the
earthquake. (Often described using the largest nearby city)
Magnitude - Amount of energy released from the earthquake. (Often
described using a number)
Ex) Picture on the right.
Honshu Japan is the epicenter.
7.3 is the magnitude.
● Tsunami: a large, long sea wave resulting from an
earthquake, submarine landslide, or other
● 90% of all tsunamis occur in the Pacific Ocean
Solutions to Earthquakes
● Seismology: scientific study of
earthquakes and the movement of seismic
● Seismic Activity: the type, frequency, and
size of earthquakes that happen over a
period of time in a certain area
● Seismograph: the instrument used to
detect and record earthquakes
Solutions to Tsunamis
● Seismographs
● Computerized offshore buoys (measure
changes in wave height)
● System of sirens on the beach (to alert
people of potential tsunami danger)