Download Examination and Assessment of the Pediatric Patient

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Liver support systems wikipedia, lookup

Ulcerative colitis wikipedia, lookup

Liver wikipedia, lookup

Cholangiocarcinoma wikipedia, lookup

Colorectal cancer wikipedia, lookup

Bile acid wikipedia, lookup

Bariatric surgery wikipedia, lookup

Intestine transplantation wikipedia, lookup

Liver transplantation wikipedia, lookup

Wilson's disease wikipedia, lookup

Pancreas wikipedia, lookup

Gastric bypass surgery wikipedia, lookup

Liver cancer wikipedia, lookup

Colonoscopy wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Chapter 6: Digestive
System
Alimentary Canal
Gastrointestinal Tract
Introduction
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s06Xz
aKqELk
Functions of the
Digestive System
1.
Ingestion
2.
Digestion
3.
Absorption
1.
Elimination
Anatomy and Physiology
Salivary Glands
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i5OOVXl0yAI
Parotid gland
Sublingual gland
Submandibular
gland
Gastrointestinal Tract
esophagus
liver
gallbladder
duodenum
stomach
Gastrointestinal Tract
liver
gallbladder
duodenum
transverse
colon
ascending
colon
cecum
appendix
stomach
pancreas
jejunum
descending
colon
ileum
sigmoid
colon
rectum
anus
Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas
liver
gallbladder
common bile
duct
duodenum
pancreas
pancreatic
duct
Liver
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wbh3SjzydnQ
Besides producing bile and releasing
bilirubin, the liver:
 helps
maintain normal blood glucose levels
 manufactures
blood proteins necessary for
clotting
 removes
toxins and poisons from the blood
Pathway of Food Through GI
Tract
Combining Forms – page 219
 dent/o
Teeth/tooth
 odont/o
Teeth
 gingiv/o
Gum
orthodontist
 orth/o:
straight
 odont/o:
teeth
 -ist
specialist
 Dentist
specializing in
_________________________________
periodontist
 peri-
around/surrond
 odont/o
teeth
 -ist
specialist
 Dentist
specializing in
__Gums___________________
Gingivitis
gingivitis
 gingiv/o:
gums
 -itis:
inflammation
endodontist
 endo-
within
 odont/o
teeth
 -ist
specialist
 Dentist
specializing in operating within the
tooth

root canal specialist
Combining Forms
 gloss/o
tongue
 lingu/o
tongue
 or/o
mouth
 stomato/o
mouth
sublingual
 sub-:
under
 lingu/o:
tongue
 -al
pertaining to
Combining Forms
 ptyl/o
saliva
 sial/o
saliva
 esophag/o
esophagus
 pharyng/o
throat
esophageal
 esophag/o:
esophagus
 -eal
 Pertaining
to the esophagus
Esophageal varices
Combining Forms
 gastr/o
stomach
 pylor/o
pylorus
Pylorus – sphinchter in the lower portion of
the stomach
GERD
gastrostomy
 gastr/o
stomach
 -stomy
forming an opening
 New
opening into the stomach through the
abdominal wall

May be necessary to introduce food into the
stomach
PEG – percutaneous
endoscopic gastrostomy
Suffixes – page 220
 -algia
pain
 -dynia
pain
 -emesis
vomiting
 -megaly
enlargement
hepatomegaly
 hepat/o
 -megaly
 Enlargement
of the liver
Suffixes
 -orexia
appetite (anorexia)
 -pepsia
digestion (ex: dyspepsia)
 -phagia
swallowing/eating (ex:
dysphagia)
 -rrhea
discharge
Combining Forms – Intestine –
p. 233
 duoden/o
duedenum
 enter/o
intestine (small)
 jejun/o
jejunum
 -ile/o
ileum
enterocolitis
 enter/o
 col/o
 -itis
-
–
–
intestine (small)
colon
inflammation
duodenal
 duoden/o:
duodenum (first part of the
small intestine)
 -al:
 Pertaining
to the duodenum
Small Bowel Obstruction (SBO)
Bowel Resection
 For
Diverticulitis
Combining Forms
 append/o
appendix
 appendic/o
 col/o
colon
 colon/o
 proct/o
anus/rectum
Appendicitis
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r2zsbdPBhGY
 appendic/o:
 -itis:
appendix
appendectomy
 append/o:
appendix
 -ectomy:
__________
 Surgical
removal of the appendix
colonic
 colon/o:
colon (large intestine)
 -ic
 Pertaining
to the colon
colonoscopy
 colon/o
 -scopy
 Process
colon
of visual examination of the
colostomy
 col/o:
colon
 -stomy:
form a new opening
 Form
a new opening in the colon
Combining Forms
 rect/o
rectum
 sigmoid/o
sigmoid colon
proctologist
 proct/o:
anus and rectum
 log/o:
study of
 -ist:
specialist
Combining Forms – page 244
 Cholangi/o
bile vessel
 Chol/e
bile/gall
 Cholecyst/o
gall bladder
 Choledoch/o
bile duct
Cholecystectomy (Chole for short)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ffoKThdqo4I
 cholecyst/o:
 -ectomy
gallbladder
 Gallstones
can form when there is an
imbalance in the substances that make up
bile. For instance, cholesterol stones may
develop as a result of too much
cholesterol in the bile. Another cause may
be the inability of the gallbladder to empty
properly.
Combining Forms
 Hepat/o
liver
 Pancreat/o
pancreas
hepatoma
 hepat/o
 -oma
 Tumor

of the liver
Malignant
Suffixes – page 244
 -iasis
abnormal condition
 -megaly
enlargement
 -prandial
meal (pre/post prandial)
Post Prandial
 Post
after
 Prandial
meals
 After
pp
meals – often used as abbreviation
Cholelithiasis
 Chole
bile/gall
 Lith/o
stone
 Iasis
abnormal condition
 Presence
of gall stones
Abbreviatons – page 255
please see text
 Dx
 GERD
 IBD
 NG
GI Tract – Diseases and
Conditions
 Anorexia
–
– Abnormal accumulation of fluid
in the abdomen
 Ascites
 Dysphagia
–
ascites
 Abnormal
accumulation of fluid in the
abdominal cavity. Can be causes by HF or
LF
celiac
 celi/o:
 -ac
 Pertaining
to the abdomen
Parenteral (opposite of enteral)
 par-:
 enter/o
apart
-
 -al
 Pertaining

intestines
pertaining to
to apart from the intestines
Delivery of substances any way other
than through the digestive tract
Pathology
– chronic, degenerative disease
of the liver. Eventually leads to jaundice.
 Cirrhosis
Pathology
– yellow-orange coloration of the
skin and whites of eyes caused by high
levels of bilirubin in the blood. Occurs with:
 Jaundice

Hemoloysis

Liver Disease

Obstruction of bile flow into duodenum
Pathology
 Diverticular
Disease – bulging pouches in
the GI tract
 Dysentery (infection of the intestines resulting
in severe diarrhea with the presence of blood
and mucus in the feces)
 Dys –
 Enter Y-
Pathology - hematochezia
 hemat/o
-
 -chezia:
defecation, elimination of wastes
Pathology
– Inflammatory Bowel Disease –
 Ulceration of the colon mucosa/lining
 IBD
 Ulcerative
of IBD
colitis/Crohn’s Disease – Forms
Pathology
 IBS
– Irritable Bowel Syndrome
 “spastic
colon” - Can be due to stress/diet
Pathology
– increase of 20% or more above
ideal body weight.
 Obesity
obesity – increase of 40% or more
above ideal body weight. (100 lbs or more
over ideal body weight)
 Morbid
Pathology of the Digestive
System
– black tarry stools indicating
digested blood from bleeding in upper GI
tract.
 Melena
Varices – Swollen, twisted
veins at the lower end of the esophagus
 Esophageal
Pathology
– Inflammation of the liver
 caused by a virus
 Hepatitis
 HEP
A, B, and C
Pathology
 Cancers
of the GI Tract:
Pancreatic Cancer
 Colon-Rectal Cancer
 Gastric Cancer
 Esophageal Cancer

Diagnostic Procedures – pages
260 - 261
 Barium
Enema – BE
 CT
 MRI
 Endoscopy
laparoscopy
 lapar/o
-
 -scopy
-
Medical and Surgical
Procedures – p. 262-263
Bariatric surgery

Vertical banded
gastroplasty
• Vertical stapling of upper
stomach near esophagus.
• Reduces stomach to a
small pouch.
• Band restricts food
consumption and delays its
passage.
• Causes feeling of fullness.
A. Vertical banded
gastroplasty
Gastric Bypass
 Stomach
is divided into a small upper
pouch and a much larger lower "remnant"
pouch and then the small intestine is
rearranged to connect to both.
Pharmacology
Antacids
Counteract or neutralize acidity, usually in
the stomach
•
Antidiarrheals
Control loose stools
•Relieve diarrhea
•
• Absorb excess water in bowel
• Slow peristalsis in intestinal tract
Pharmacology
Antiemetics
Control nausea and vomiting
•
• Block nerve impulses to vomiting
center of the brain
Pharmacology
Laxatives
Treat constipation
•
• Increase peristaltic activity in large
intestine
• Increase water and electrolyte
secretion into the bowel to induce
defecation
 Review
word elements summary pages
269 – 270 in text.