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Rocks and Minerals
•Hold secrets to Earth’s past
•Valuable natural resources
•How do you use rocks and
minerals in your everyday life?
Building Blocks
Rocks are made of minerals
Minerals are made from elements
Elements are made of atoms
Atoms are made of electrons, protons and
• Elements react and form bonds
• Either ionic or covalent
• Most common crustal elements are
oxygen and silicon
• Bond covalently into silica tetrahedron
• Tetrahedron can bond to other elements
• Naturally occurring inorganic solids of one
or more elements that have a definite
chemical composition with an internal
arrangement of atoms
Classifying minerals
Crystal form
Acid test
Rock Types
• Igneous
• Sedimentary
• Metamorphic
Igneous Rocks
Form from cooling magma
Cooling can be fast or slow
Slow makes big crystals = plutonic
Fast makes small crystals = volcanic
Amount of silica matters largely a
function of continental input
• Basalt – Andesite - Rhyolite
Sedimentary Rocks
• Clastic from weathering of rocks
– Grain size
– Transport
• Chemical from precipitation
• Biogenic from living organisms
• Composition or texture of a rock changes
due to changing temperature, pressure or
chemical reaction
• Temperature needed 200-1100˚C
• Contact versus regional
• Foliation