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The Endocrine System
Unit 3 – Anatomy and Physiology
Lesson 9 – The Endocrine System
The Endocrine System
A group of ductless glands that release
hormones into the circulatory system
Greatly effects growth and development
Animal must have proper levels of all nutrients,
especially minerals, for proper functioning.
These hormones produce gradual change, instead
of immediate change like the nervous system.
Football player: nervous system directs him to run and
catch pass, endocrine system causes rate of growth.
Function is to work with nervous system in
the internal control of the body.
This is accomplished by specific hormones
secreted by specific glands.
Chemical substances that travel through the
bloodstream and effect a gland or organ
They regulate many of the activities in the body by
acting as messengers, relaying information.
Only needed in very minute amounts
Milk Production
Breathing Rate
1/100,000,000 gram of oxytocin hormone will stimulate
the almost immediate letdown on milk in female animals.
They are always in the blood in varying amounts.
• A cell or group of cells
(tissue) that secretes
– Hypothalamus is the
portion of the brain that
controls the pituitary
gland, or master
endocrine gland.
• Also synthesizes
antidiuretic hormone and
oxytocin for uterus
contraction during birth.
Principle Endocrine Glands
Pituitary Gland: Master endocrine gland, linked to hypothalamus
with nerves and vessels
Creates amino acid hormones
Controls adrenal gland, thyroid gland, ovaries, testis, mammary
glands, stores hypothalamus hormones and secretes growth
Thyroid gland
Creates amino acid hormones
Secretes thyroxin to stimulate growth and metabolism and secretes
Parathyroid gland secretes amino acid hormones and parathyroid
Adrenal gland
Adrenal Medulla creates amino acid hormones and secretes
epinephrine and norepinephrine
Adrenal Cortex creates steroid hormones and secretes
glucocorticoid and aldosterone
Reproductive glands
Ovary: secretes steroid hormones – female sex hormones
Testis: secretes steroid hormones – male sex hormones
– Inner portion of adrenal gland secretes epinephrine
(adrenaline) and norepinephrine.
• Fight or flight response
– Hypothalamus relays impulses to nervous system,
which stimulates adrenal glands to increase output of
epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine.
• These hormones increase heart rate, blood pressure,
respiration rate
• Increase efficiency of muscle contractions and blood sugar
• Usually known as an “adrenaline rush.” Body prepares to
face or flee the situation.