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Transcript
DNA and Protein Synthesis Review Sheet
1. What does DNA stand for?
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
2. What does RNA stand for?
Ribonucleic Acid
3. The basic building block of a DNA molecule is a _nucleotide______________
4. __Nucleotide______________ are made out of three things… a __phosphate_______,
__sugar_______, and a __nitrogen base________________
5. Nitrogen bases are complimentary which means that __Adenine___ bonds with
_Thymine_____ and _Guanine _____ bonds with __Cytosine____
6. What is the shape of DNA called?
Double Helix
7. When DNA unzips, what bonds are being broken?
Hydrogen Bonds
8. What is the end product of DNA replication?
DNA replication means that the entire strand of DNA is copied. You end up with two double stranded DNAs
that are full length
9. After the DNA is unzipped, how does the DNA form two new strands?
Most prominently, DNA polymerase synthesizes the new DNA by adding complementary nucleotides to the
template strand.
10. Name three differences between DNA and RNA
DNA: Double Helix, deoxyribose sugar, Thymine
RNA: Single Strand, Ribose Sugar, Uracil
11. The process where the information from DNA is copied to mRNA is
_Transcription_________
12. Groups of three nitrogen bases on the mRNA are called codons_________
13. Codons code for a specific __amino acid______
14. What gets the correct amino acid and brings it to the ribosome and mRNA?
tRNA
15. How does the tRNA know what amino acid to get?
Proteins can only be made correctly when the amino acids are assembled in the right order. The
job of tRNA is to match up the amino acids with the correct codons in the mRNA strand.
16. A mistake in the cell’s DNA is called a __mutation____________
17. Will all mutations cause a problem?
No
18. Are any mutations good?
They can be
19. What are three ways DNA can be altered/mutated?
Insertion, Deletion, or Substitution
20. Write the complimentary pairs for the following nitrogen bases (DNA to DNA)
ATGCACA
TACGTGT
21. Write the complimentary pairs to form a mRNA strand.
TAAGCGC
AUUCGCG
22. If the sequence of nitrogen bases is altered, what else will be altered as a result?
Amino Acid Sequence
23. What nitrogen base is present in RNA that is not in DNA?
Uracil
24. What nitrogen base is present in DNA that is not in RNA?
Thymine
25. Where in the cell is DNA located?
Nucleus
26. Who discovered that the shape of DNA was a double helix?
Watson and Crick
27. Be able to decode a codon to an amino acid.
There are several types of mutation:
DELETION (a base is lost)
INSERTION (an extra base is inserted)
Deletion and insertion may cause what’s called a FRAMESHIFT, meaning the reading “frame”
changes, changing the amino acid sequence.
SUBSTITUTION (one base is substituted for another)
If a substitution changes the amino acid, it’s called a MISSENSE mutation.
If a substitution does not change the amino acid, it’s called a SILENT mutation.
If a substitution changes the amino acid to a “stop,” it’s called a NONSENSE mutation.
Original DNA Sequence:
mRNA Sequence:
T A C A C C T T G G C G A C G A C T
A U G U G G A A C C G C U G C U G A
Amino Acid Sequence: METHIONINE-TRYPTOPHAN-ASPARAGINE-ARGININE-CYSTEINE- (STOP)
Mutated DNA Sequence #5:
T A C A C C T T G G G A C G A C T
What will be the corresponding mRNA sequence? A U G U G G A A C C C U G C U G A
What will be the amino acid sequence? METHIONINE-TRYPTOPHAN-ASPARAGINE- PROLINE - ALANINE
Will there likely be effects?
YES
What kind of mutation is this? DELETION – FRAME SHIFT