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Unit 1 Cellular Biology Test Review
- 10 True/False
- 12 Matching
- 2 ‘Long’ Answer
- 25 Multiple Choice
- 7 ‘Short’ Answers/Calculations
Cell Theory
o What are the three tenets of the cell theory?
 How can you tell if something is alive?
o Which type is the most powerful?
o What is the earliest microscope?
o What is the benefit of using a SEM vs. a TEM?
o How is magnification calculated? (occipital lens x objective lens)
 Calculations – know how to calculate the magnification of a biological drawing!
Cell Organelles
o Know function of: mitochondria, nucleus, ribosome, nucleic acids, lysosomes, chloroplasts,
vacuole, cilia/flagella, endoplasmic reticulum, cell membrane
 How can the cell be compared to a working factory?
 Why are mitochondria called the power plants of cells?
 Where would you find a high concentration of mitochondria? Low
Chemistry of Biology
o What are the 4 types of macromolecules in the body?
o Carbohydrates – simple vs. complex
o Which elements make up carbohydrates?
 Monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharide
 What are sources of simple carbs? Complex carbs?
o Proteins
 Why are these the most diverse molecules in your body?
 What is denaturation? When does it happen? Practical applications?
 What are the individual units (monomers) of proteins?
 What type of bond exists between these monomers?
 How many amino acids are ‘essential’?
o What does it mean to be essential?
o Lipids (Fats)
o Which elements make up lipids? How are they different from carbohydrates?
 What is a phospholipid?
 What is a triglyceride? Which functional groups comprise it?
 Compare saturated fats to unsaturated fats. Which is ‘good’?
 What are some sources of each?
 Which are solid at room temp? liquid?
o Nucleic Acids
 What is the function of nucleic acids in your body?
 What are the four nitrogenous bases of DNA?
 How do they pair up in the body?
Functional Foods
o What does the term functional food mean?
o How reliable are the claims made by functional food companies?
 What are some examples of functional foods we use daily?
o How do biological catalysts affect reaction rates? (think: activation energy!)
o What factors affect the rate of reaction?
 What is the induced-fit model?
 Enzyme Activity Graphs
Stem Cells
o What is a stem cell capable of? (think unspecialized towards specialized)
o Where can we find stem cells in the body?
Cell Transport
o What is the cell membrane composed of?
o Why does it mean to be ‘selectively permeable’?
o Active transport vs. Passive transport – which uses energy? What energy is used?
o What is ATP? What does it stand for? Sketch it, know where the ‘high energy’ bond is.
o Diffusion – Simple vs. Facilitated
o Transmembrane proteins
o What is a concentration gradient?
 Osmosis – which direction does water flow? (think potato activity)
 Terms: isotonic, hypotonic, hypertonic
o Which types of molecules enter the cell through active transport? Give some examples.
o Exocytosis, endocytosis (pinocytosis & phagocytosis), apoptosis
o Know the overall equation.
o autotroph vs. heterotroph
o What is chlorophyll? What are accessory pigments?
o Thylakoid, grana, vacuole, stroma
o Where does it take place? Which organelle carries out the most photosynthesis reactions?
o Calvin Cycle vs. Light Reactions
o What are the reactants? What are the products?
o What molecule is generated as plant food?
o How are humans and plants interdependent?
 Which gases are shared between land animals and plants?
Cellular Respiration
o What are the two types of cell respiration?
o How many ATP are generated by aerobic cellular respiration total?
o Full equation of cell respiration
 Glycolysis – reactants? Products? ATP generated?
 Krebs Cycle – reactants? Products? ATP generated?
 Ethanol Fermentation – reactants? Products? ATP generated?
 What percentage of ethanol is used in wine?
 Lactate Fermentation – reactants? Products? ATP generated?
 What is lactic acid build up?
 Under which conditions does it occur? (oxygen vs. glucose)
 How is it reversed? (How can you help your muscles recover?)
o What organisms perform cellular respiration?
o What organisms perform both photosynthesis & cellular respiration?
 Why can organisms do only cellular respiration, whereas no organism can rely only on