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Verb inflexions and their function
167
follow a long vowel of the same or similar quality. Thus weak type 3
trúa ‘believe’, for example, has a 1st pl. present indic. form trúm
(< *trúum)’, deyja ‘die’ 3rd pl. past indic. dó (< *dóu), fá ‘get’ 1st pl.
present indic. fám (< *fáum), sjá ‘see’ pp. sénn (< *séinn) (these last three
verbs are highly irregular and their principal parts are listed in 3.6.9.3).
(9) As with adjectives, t is lengthened when immediately following
long, stressed vowels. Thus the 2nd sg. past indic. of strong type 1
stíga ‘step’ (see (2) above) is stétt, of búa ‘prepare’, ‘dwell’ (3.6.9.3)
bjótt.
(10) Strong verbs whose root ends in -› or -t suffer changes to these
consonants in the 2nd sg. past indic. The › assimilates to the -t ending
(cf. (7) above), e.g. reitt, from strong type 1 rí›a ‘ride’. Where the root
ends in -t, the usual ending is -zt, e.g. bazt, from strong type 3 binda
‘bind’ (3rd sg. past indic. batt, see (3) above; on root vowel i see
3.6.9.2 point (2)), lézt, from strong minor type láta ‘let’. This latter
change affects preterite present vita ‘know’ too (2nd sg. present indic.
veizt). Some verbs with root final -› may have the -zt ending as an
alternative to -tt, e.g. bazt or batt from strong type 5 bi›ja (on root
vowel i, see 3.6.9.1 point (5)). Some with root final -t may as an
alternative add t in the normal way, e.g. létt from láta (see above), or
have the same form as the 1st and 3rd sg. past indic., e.g. helt from
strong minor type halda ‘hold’ (see (3) above). Strong verbs with root
final -st have zero ending in the 2nd sg. past indic., e.g. laust from
strong type 2 ljósta ‘strike’.
(11) As in the case of nouns and adjectives (3.1.7.4 point (1), 3.3.8.4
point (1)), an -r ending may sometimes be assimilated to an immediately preceding l, n or s, e.g. 3rd sg. present indic. vill (< *vilr), from
irregular weak type 1 (3.6.7) vilja ‘want’, skínn (< *skínr) from strong
type 1 skína ‘shine’, les(s) (< *lesr) from strong type 5 lesa ‘gather’, ‘read’.
(12) The 2nd sg. past indic. -t ending of strong verbs is often dropped
when the 2nd person pronoun immediately follows, e.g. gekkt flú or
gekk flú ‘you went’, tókt flú or tók flú ‘you took’.
(13) The 1st pl. -m ending is often dropped when the 1st person dual
or pl. pronoun immediately follows, e.g. tƒkum vit or tƒku vit ‘we two
take’, tókum vér or tóku vér ‘we took’.
(14) The 2nd pl. -› ending is often dropped when the 2nd person
dual or pl. pronoun in the form flit, flér immediately follows, e.g. taki›
flit or taki flit ‘you two take’, tóku› flér or tóku flér ‘you took’.
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