Download Old Norse I: Grammar - Viking Society Web Publications

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Verb inflexions and their function
151
Strong verb type 6: fara ‘go’
fara —— ferr —— fór —— fóru —— fœri —— farinn
Minor strong verb types:
falla ‘fall’, gráta ‘cry’, hlaupa ‘leap’ ‘run’, leika ‘play’
falla —— fellr —— fell —— fellu —— felli —— fallinn
gráta —— grætr —— grét —— grétu —— gréti —— grátinn
hlaupa —— hleypr —— hljóp —— hljópu —— hl‡pi ——hlaupinn
leika —— leikr —— lék —— léku —— léki —— leikinn
Weak verb type 1: krefja ‘demand’
krefja —— krefr —— kraf›i —— krƒf›u —— kref›i —— kraf›r
Weak verb type 2: kalla ‘call’
kalla —— kallar —— kalla›i —— kƒllu›u —— kalla›i ——kalla›r
Weak verb type 3: heyra ‘hear’
heyra —— heyrir —— heyr›i —— heyr›u —— heyr›i —— heyr›r
The three types of weak verb differ in a number of ways. For the
learner what will be most noticeable is: type 1 has root vowel change
between the present and past indic. (krefja — kraf›i) and no vowel in
the sg. present indic. endings (hann krefr); type 2 has a ‘connecting
vowel’ a in the past tense (kalla›i) and a in the sg. present indic. endings (hann kallar); type 3 has the same root vowel throughout, no
connecting vowel in the past tense and i in the sg. present indic. endings (hann heyrir). The three distinct past tense suffixes, -›, -d and -t,
are distributed not according to type of verb, but phonetic environment, so that › occurs after vowels and most voiced consonants (kalla›i,
fá›i ‘coloured’, kraf›i, heyr›i), d chiefly after n (hefndi ‘avenged’),
and t after unvoiced consonants (vakti ‘wakened’, œpti ‘shouted’). In
the earliest texts fl is found after unvoiced consonants, and from the
late thirteenth century onwards d replaces › after certain voiced
consonants, particularly l and m (val›i/valdi ‘chose’, dœm›i/dœmdi
‘judged’).
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