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Verb inflexions and their function
159
‘Norwegians and Danes harried much in west-viking and
came often to islands-the when they went west or from-west,
and took there headland-plunder’
‘Norwegians and Danes made many raiding expeditions to
the West and often called by the Orkneys when they were
going west or (returning) east and plundered the headlands’
Herju›u is 3rd pl. past indic. of weak herja (type 2). Kómu, fóru and námu are
likewise 3rd pl. past indic., of strong koma (historically type 4, but highly
irregular, see 3.6.9.3), fara (type 6) and nema (type 4). On the use of the
indicative, see (1) and (2).
(12)
Fyrir ofdrambs sakar haf›i hann villzk ok snúizk ífrá gu›i
‘For arrogance sake had he bewildered-sk and turned-sk from
God’
‘Because of arrogance he had gone astray and turned from God’
Haf›i is 3rd sg. past indic. of weak hafa (type 3, but irregular, see 3.6.7);
together with the -sk supines villzk and snúizk (< villt + sk, from weak type 3
villa, snúit + sk, from irregular snúa (3.6.7), both with ts written ‘z’) it forms
past perfect constructions (see (3)). Both the -sk forms are in origin probably
reflexives (‘led himself astray’, ‘turned himself’). On the use of the indicative, see (1) and (2).
(13)
Muntu ok eigi vilja vita flat á flik, at flú liggir hér sem kƒttr
í hreysi, flar er ek berjumk til frelsis hvárumtveggjum
‘Will-you also not want know that onto you, that you lie
here like cat in cranny, there where I fight-sk for freedom
for-both’
‘You will also not want to be accused of lying here like a cat
in a cranny while I fight for the freedom of both of us’
Muntu (either munt + flú with assimilation tfl > tt and simplification tt > t after
another consonant or mun + flú with loss of -t ending before flú and partial
assimilation nfl > nt, see 3.2.1) is 2nd sg. present indic. of preterite present
munu; together with infinitives vilja (weak type 1, but irregular, see 3.6.7,
3.6.9.1 point (11)) and vita (preterite present) it forms a double modal construction (i.e. two modal verbs ‘will [future]’ and ‘want to’ are involved).
Liggir is 2nd sg. present subj. of strong liggja (type 5, but irregular, see 3.6.9.3).
Berjumk is 1st sg. present of weak berja (type 1) with the -umk suffix (which
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