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154
Morphology and syntax
preterite presents, and vera ‘be’, a highly irregular strong verb basically
of type 5 but with preterite-type forms in the present indic. (2nd sg.
ert, 2nd, 3rd pl. eru›, eru; note also 1st sg. em). Of vilja the same
principal parts are given as for the preterite presents above; of vera
the same plus the 3rd pl. past indic. (cf. the principal parts of strong
verbs in 3.6.6 above):
vilja — vill — vilja — vili — vildi — vildi — viljat
vera — er — eru — sé — var — váru — væri — verit
In addition to the above, there is a small group of common verbs
that have regular strong present tense forms, but a past whose root
undergoes radical change, metamorphosing to initial consonant(s) +
er or ør, to which weak endings are attached. The pp. has the same
root as the infinitive and the -in participial suffix of a strong verb. The
verbs concerned are gnúa ‘rub’, gróa ‘grow’, róa ‘row’, sá ‘sow’, snúa
‘turn’. Two examples will suffice (citing the same principal parts as
for the preterite presents above).
róa — rœr — róa — rói — reri/røri — reri/røri — róit
snúa — sn‡r — snúa — snúi — sneri/snøri — sneri/snøri — snúit
Finally, the principal parts of valda ‘cause’, gøra/gera ‘do’ ‘make’,
hafa ‘have’ and ver›a ‘become’ are given, the first because it is highly
irregular (with strong forms in the present, a radically altered root and
weak endings in the past), the latter three because they are extensively
used in a variety of constructions (hafa and ver›a often as auxiliaries)
and exhibit certain forms that may not be wholly transparent. For valda,
gøra/gera and hafa, with weak pasts, it is enough to cite inf., 3rd sg.
pres. indic., 3rd sg. past indic. and subj., and pp. (for gøra/gera with
root vowel change only in the pp. fewer forms would in fact do); for
ver›a, the full complement of strong verb principal parts is given (cf.
3.6.6). The pp. is in each case in the strong nom./acc. n. sg. form.
valda —— veldr —— olli —— ylli —— valdit
gera —— gerir —— ger›i —— ger›i —— gƒrt
hafa —— hefr/hefir —— haf›i —— hef›i —— haft
ver›a —— ver›r —— var› —— ur›u —— yr›i —— or›it
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