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Fall 2005
Final test
Test fall 2006 for TOK1024.
Students have to hand in to Pálmi the answers the 24. November 2006. If it is not
possible in a hardcopy, then by e-mail ( The test, assignments
and PowerPoint lectures are available on Pálmi’s homepage and
Students are supposed to finish this test at home and are also allowed to use
their handouts and all other sources they can access for answering those
questions. The answers have to be written down on a computer, not by hand.
1. How do we know things we know?
a.(4 points) Give examples of different ways of justifying things you
Knowing by experience/empirically.
Knowing by reason/analytically.
Aesthetic judgement.
Moral judgment.
b. (6 points) Another way of looking at this is asking about the sources
of our knowledge. The main sources of our knowledge are: reason,
experience, authority, intuition and faith. Analyze the following
sentences; categorize them according to these sources mentioned
God created the world in seven days; I read it in the Bible.
Bush is fighting for freedom in the world; I have heard him say
it several times.
Sometimes the heat is above 0°C in the western part of
Reykjavík when it is below in the eastern part of the town, I
have seen that myself more than once.
The Second World War is due to how badly the Germans were
treated by the Versailles treaty; I read in my history textbook.
Obviously my friend John was either lying to me or our friend
Bill, when he said to me that he had been at home all yesterday
evening and to Bill that he had been with his girlfriend all
Somehow I felt that I said something wrong, but I did not
recognise what it was until afterwards when my fellow students
explained it for me.
Fall 2005
Final test
2. (3 points) Perception:
“There is no such thing as an innocent eye”. Explain what is
meant by this statement in connection to tok’s approach to
3. (4 points) Language:
a. Can you think without a language? Give good arguments for your
b. “The meaning of a word is based on a social agreement. This
agreement exists before the individual.” Explain what is meant by
this statement.
4. (4 points) Logic:
a. Construct two sentences where you come to a conclusion by
deductive reasoning.
b. Construct two sentences where you come to a conclusion by
inductive reasoning.
5. (3 points) Metaphysics:
Give an example of a metaphysical question, and try to answer it
shortly, with your own words.
6. (6 points) Philosophy of science!
The project of the logical positivists and Karl R Popper was to draw a line between
what they called real science one on hand and on the other hand, metaphysics and / or
pseudoscience. The positivists suggested the principle of verification but Karl Popper
criticized their contribution and instead suggested the principle of falsification.
What is the difference between verification and falsification in this context? Try to
illustrate with good examples.
Thomas S Kuhn’s paradigm theory was revolutionary when it came in the beginning
of the 60’ties. According to him science exists always in a social context and that’s
why ”The community of scientists” is a central concept in his theory and as well his
controversial thesis about scientists being irrational choosing between two or more
theories in their field of science.
What are the possible “irrational criteria’s” connected with the” The community of
scientists”? Support your answer with good arguments.
Have a nice leave.
Fall 2005
Final test