UNCERTAINTY AND QUALITY RATING IN ANALYTICAL

... accuracy. A detailed review is provided in D’Ayala et al. (2014). For Numerical Modelling, factors affecting the seismic fragility curves can be classified into model type (simulation of the post-linear behaviour), model completeness (i.e. all relevant behaviour modes are considered), and model deta ...

... accuracy. A detailed review is provided in D’Ayala et al. (2014). For Numerical Modelling, factors affecting the seismic fragility curves can be classified into model type (simulation of the post-linear behaviour), model completeness (i.e. all relevant behaviour modes are considered), and model deta ...

III. results and discussions

... and Q-factor with distance is shown in figure 6 (a) and (b), respectively. It is obtained from the figure 6 (a), that BER remains constant upto a distance of 1200 km, thereafter it increases continuously. BER obtained at a distance from 100 to 1200 km is 10-40 and increased to 10-10 over a distance ...

... and Q-factor with distance is shown in figure 6 (a) and (b), respectively. It is obtained from the figure 6 (a), that BER remains constant upto a distance of 1200 km, thereafter it increases continuously. BER obtained at a distance from 100 to 1200 km is 10-40 and increased to 10-10 over a distance ...

Introduction to Cartography GEOG 2016 E

... Topographic Surveying • Process of: – determining the positions of the natural and artificial features on the earth’s surface – Determining the configuration of the terrain ...

... Topographic Surveying • Process of: – determining the positions of the natural and artificial features on the earth’s surface – Determining the configuration of the terrain ...

UNIT II

... Super-elevation (banking) is the transverse slope provided at horizontal curve to counteract the centrifugal force, by raising the outer edge of the pavement with respect to the inner edge, throughout the length of the horizontal curve. So super elevation helps the vehicle to over come the centr ...

... Super-elevation (banking) is the transverse slope provided at horizontal curve to counteract the centrifugal force, by raising the outer edge of the pavement with respect to the inner edge, throughout the length of the horizontal curve. So super elevation helps the vehicle to over come the centr ...

# Geometric design of roads

The geometric design of roads is the branch of highway engineering concerned with the positioning of the physical elements of the roadway according to standards and constraints. The basic objectives in geometric design are to optimize efficiency and safety while minimizing cost and environmental damage. Geometric design also affects an emerging fifth objective called ""livability,"" which is defined as designing roads to foster broader community goals, including providing access to employment, schools, businesses and residences, accommodate a range of travel modes such as walking, bicycling, transit, and automobiles, and minimizing fuel use, emissions and environmental damage.Geometric roadway design can be broken into three main parts: alignment, profile, and cross-section. Combined, they provide a three-dimensional layout for a roadway.The alignment is the route of the road, defined as a series of horizontal tangents and curves.The profile is the vertical aspect of the road, including crest and sag curves, and the straight grade lines connecting them.The cross section shows the position and number of vehicle and bicycle lanes and sidewalks, along with their cross slope or banking. Cross sections also show drainage features, pavement structure and other items outside the category of geometric design.