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Final Exam Study Guide
Part 1
Biol1406 (FA’14)
The hierarchy of biological organization from least to most complex
The main source of energy for producers in an ecosystem
The lowest level of biological organization that can perform all the activities required for life
Eukaryotes that obtain their food by digesting dead or decomposed organisms
5. Examples of positive feedback mechanisms
6. The branch of biology is concerned with the naming and classifying of species
7. The genetic evidence of the common ancestry of all life forms
8. The definition of:
a. Hypothesis
b. The word “science”
9. The four of the 25 elements known which make up 96% of living matter
10. Define the following and their relation with each other:
The atomic number
The atomic mass
11. Identify the following terms with some of their characteristic
a. Atom
b. Molecule
c. Anion
d. Neutron
e. Cation
12. The distribution of electrons on their energy levels
13. The use of electron distribution to determine reactivity/ non-reactivity of elements
14. Descriptive term for long chain of sugars
15. The function(s)’characteristics of enzymes
16. The building units of a nucleotide
17. Definition of the valence shell
18. Influence of valence shell on reactivity/non-reactivity of element
19. The four types of bonds, their order in terms of relative strength, and the how they form
Part 2
Biol1406, FA’14
1. The cell theory
2. The two basic types of cells and the differences between them
3. Cytoplasm vs cytosol
4. The major lipid component of the plasma membrane
5. The original code carrier (code source) for synthesis of a primary protein (amino acid sequence)
6. The cellular site for protein synthesis
7. The carrier of the copy of protein synthesis code (instructions) from the nucleus to the ribosome
8. The components and structural features of DNA
9. An example of potential energy
10. The relationship between the number of amino acid in a polypeptide and the total number of
peptide bonds in the same polypeptide
11. The immediate source of energy for a cell to do work
12. The type/form of energy in ATP
13. How energy is released from ATP as a molecule
14. The enzyme region where a substrate binds
15. Definition of phagocytosis
16. The energy required to initiate a chemical reaction
17. The process of oxygen transport across the plasma membrane
18. The by-product(s) of cellular respiration
19. Nitrogenous base-pairing in DNA and the type and number of bonds holding the pairs
20. The unique structural features shared by mitochondria and chloroplasts
21. The ability of hydrophobic molecules to cross the cell membrane
22. The impact of a solution tonicity on the normal healthy appearance of plant and animal cells
23. The nature of endergenic reactions in terms of spontaneous occurrence & energy requirement
Part 3
Biol1406, FA’14
1. The process by which yeast get its energy of glucose unaerobically
2. The most efficient stage of ATP production in cellular respiration
3. The cellular location for glycolysis
4. The by-products of cellular respiration include
5. The number of ATP molecules produced by:
a. Glycolysis
b. Citric Acid Cycle
c. Oxidative phosphorylation (electron transfer chain or Chemiosmosis)
d. Cellular respiration
e. Lactic acid fermentation
6. The type of fermentation he human body can perform
7. The two products resulting from yeast fermentation
8. The main reactant(s) that photosynthesis convert(s) into chemical energy through the use of
light energy include(s).
9. The primary pigment that absorbs solar energy in plants
10. The product resulting from the splitting of water by captured light during photosynthesis
11. Common features between chloroplasts and mitochondria
12. The main/major feature of each of the following cell cycle phases:
Part 4
Biol1406, FA’14
1. The contributing source of each member of the a homologous chromosome pair
2. The types of cell divisions that produce genetically identical/ non-identical offspring
3. The members of the sex chromosome pair in human and their homology
4. Somatic cells vs reproductive cells in humans in terms of:
a. Total number of chromosomes
b. Site of production
5. The type of cell produced by the union of a sperm and an egg and its number of chromosomes
6. The definition of :
a. A character
b. A trait
7. The term used for different alternative versions of a gene