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11.1 The Byzantine Empire After Rome split, the Eastern Empire, known as Byzantium, flourishes for a thousand years. 330 A.D. Constantine moves capital to Byzantium– change name to Constantinople A.D. 395: Roman Empire divided into East and West A.D. 476: Western Roman Empire “falls” A.D. 1054: Christian Church splits Roman Catholicism (West) Eastern Orthodox (East) Page 306 Eastern Orthodox View of the Equality of Patriarchs [Bishops] Patriarch of Rome “primacy” Patriarch of Constantinople Patriarch of Alexandria Patriarch of Antioch Patriarch of Jerusalem First Among Equals “First among equals” merely meant that the Pope’s opinion was the one that was asked first. As noted above, the distance of Rome from the east could imply impartiality. But the Eastern Orthodox did not hold that the Pope’s opinion was law for the entire Church. In the ancient “pentarchy” (the five “sees” listed below) he would preside as the “chair” in an ecumenical council. This did not give him any authority over other jurisdictions however. Roman Catholic View of “Papal Supremacy” Pope of Rome Supreme above other provinces Patriarch of Patriarch of Constantinople Alexandria Patriarch of Antioch Patriarch of Jerusalem A New Rome in a New Setting The Eastern Roman Empire • Roman Empire officially divides into East and West in 395. • Eastern Empire flourishes; becomes known as Byzantium • Justinian becomes emperor of Byzantium in 527. • His armies reconquer much of the former Roman territory. • Byzantine emperors head state and church, use brutal politics Life in the New Rome New Laws for the Empire • Justinian seeks to revise and update laws for governing the empire • Justinian Code—new set of laws consisting of four main parts • Code regulates much of Byzantine life; lasts for 900 years. Creating the Imperial Capital • Justinian launches a program to beautify the capital, Constantinople. • Constructs new buildings; builds magnificent church, Hagia Sophia. • Byzantines preserve Greco-Roman culture and learning. Constantine’s Hectic Pace • City becomes trading hub with major marketplace. • Giant Hippodrome offers chariot races and other entertainment. • Racing fans start riots in 532; the government restores order violently. • Empress Theodora is the powerful wife and adviser to Justinian. The Empire Falls Years of Turmoil • Justinian dies in 565; the empire faces many crises after his death. Attacks from East and West • Byzantium faces attacks from many different groups. • Empire survives through bribery, diplomacy, and military power. • Constantinople falls in 1453; brings an end to the Byzantine Empire. The Church Divides A Religious Split • Christianity develops differently in Eastern and Western Roman Empires. • Two churches disagree over many issues, including the use of icons. • Icons are two-dimensional religious images used to aid in prayer. • Leading bishop of Eastern Christianity is known as a Patriarch. • In the West, the pope excommunicates the emperor, banishing him from the church over the iconoclast controversy. The Primary Causes of the East-West Schism of 1054* Cause Eastern Church Western Church POLITICAL RIVALRY Byzantine Empire Holy Roman Empire CLAIMS OF PAPACY Patriarch of Constantinople was considered second in primacy to the bishop of Rome. Bishop of Rome claimed supremacy over entire church. THEOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT Stagnated after Council of Chalcedon. Continued to change and grow through controversies and expansion. FILIOQUE CONTROVERSEY Declared that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father. Declared that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son. ICONOCLASTIC CONTROVERSY Engaged in 120-year dispute over the use of icons in worship; finally concluded they could be used (statues prohibited). Made constant attempts to interfere in what was purely an Eastern dispute (statues permitted). *from Robert C. Walton. Chronological and Background Charts of Church History. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1986. The Primary Causes of the East-West Schism of 1054* Cause Eastern Church Western Church DIFFERENCES IN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE Greek/Oriental Latin/Occidental CLERICAL CELIBACY Lower clergy were permitted to marry. All clergy were required to be celibate. OUTSIDE PRESSURES Muslims constricted and put continual pressure on Eastern Church. Western Barbarians were Christianized and assimilated by Western church. MUTUAL EXCOMMUNICATIO N OF 1054 Michael Cerularius anathematized Pope Leo IX after having been excommunicated by him. Leo IX excommunicated Patriarch Michael Cerularius of Constantinople. *from Robert C. Walton. Chronological and Background Charts of Church History. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1986. Four Original Provinces within Christianity Recognized by the Council of Nicaea (325 C.E.) Rome Antioch Alexandria Jerusalem In 325, the Council of Nicaea recognized only four major jurisdictions within the church. Due to the Jewish revolts of the 1st and 2nd Centuries, a shift in the influence of Christianity had taken place away from Jerusalem. Antioch and Alexandria became major jurisdictions, but because of conflicting schools of interpretation and theology often disputed with one another. After its founding by Constantine, Constantinople was rising in importance and later its Patriarch also disputed with Alexandria over theology (e.g. Nestorius who held to the Nestorian heresy of a twoperson Christology). Rome, being the original seat of the Roman Empire was given Primacy as “first among equals.” This meant that the opinion of the pope of Rome was canvassed in theological disputes. He was given some jurisdiction outside of Rome, but it did not mean he had jurisdiction over the other three provinces. It was implied that the distance of Rome from the other provinces gave the Pope some level of impartiality as to theological “Pentarchy”: Five Provinces Recognized by the Council of Chalcedon (451 C.E.) Constantinople Rome Antioch Alexandria Jerusalem In 381 the Council of Constantinople elevated Constantinople to a Patriarchate (major province) because the seat of the Roman government was moved there. Constantine had called Constantinople “Nova Roma” (New Rome). Theodosius the Great, who died in 395, was the last emperor to rule a unified Roman Empire. In 410 Germanic tribes (Visogoths) had sacked Rome, and by the middle of the 5th century the western Roman Empire had fallen. In 451 the Council of Chalcedon—which settled the Christological Effect of Islamic Conquests Constantinople Rome Antioch Alexandria Jerusalem The Islamic conquests of the 7th and 8th Centuries effectively eliminate any influence of the patriarchates of Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria in the Christian world. Constantinople had already been given second place in “primacy” to Rome, therefore the two main “rival” patriarchates are Rome and Constantinople. This sets up the political conflict that was to come and be exacerbated by the linguistic, liturgical, and theological differences between Rome and Constantinople. Linguistic Disunity West—dominant language Latin East—dominant language Greek Decline in bilingualism after the fall of the western empire Linguistic disunity develops into cultural disunity • Different religious rites and liturgy develop • Different approaches to Christian doctrine emerge Papal Supremacy and the Nicene Creed Pope Leo IX claimed he held authority over the four eastern patriarchs. The Pope in 1014 inserted the “Filioque clause” (the words “and the son” in regards to the procession of the Holy Spirit) into the Latin version of the Nicene Creed. (This was not allowed by the Roman church in the Greek version). Leo IX asserted the papacy’s right to do so. The Eastern Orthodox believed this to be a violation of the 7th canon of the Council of Ephesus, and viewed this clause as a western innovation and heresy. The Eastern Orthodox today state that the 28th Canon of the Council of Chalcedon established the equality of the Bishops of Rome and Constantinople, therefore, the Roman pontiff could not claim authority over Constantinople. Iconoclast Controversy The Byzantine Emperor Leo III outlawed the veneration of icons in the 8th century. Some believe this to be a result of the pressures of Islam. Those who were against the use of icons in the church were called “iconoclasts.” The first period of iconoclasm occurred from 730-787 C.E. A second period of iconoclasm occurred from 814-842 C.E. Arguments usually surrounded the understanding of how to depict the two natures of Jesus Christ in Christian theological teaching. “Iconodules” (supporters of the use of icons) believed that to disallow depicting Jesus artistically denied the incarnation. The western church rejected iconoclasm. However, icons, which are generally two dimensional works of art were generally not used. Instead, statues were allowed in the western church . Different Church/State Relations • Caesaropapism in the east subordinated the church to the religious claims of the dominant political state. In the Byzantine Empire, the emperor had supreme authority over the church. • In the west the church was relatively independent of the state due to the fall of the western empire and a lack of imperial authority. Later, when strong kingdoms emerge in Western Europe, the investiture controversy surfaces creating church/state conflicts. • Pope and patriarch excommunicate each other over religious doctrines and disputes over jurisdiction. • Eastern and Western churches officially split in 1054. • West—Roman Catholic Church • East—Orthodox Church Byzantine Missionaries Convert the Slavs • Eastern Orthodox missionaries seek to convert the northern peoples known as the Slavs. • Missionaries create the Cyrillic alphabet—the basis for many Slavic languages. • Alphabet enables many groups to read the Bible.