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Transcript
Name: _____________________________________________ Pd: _______ Date: _______________
Earth Space Science Semester 1 Review
Earth’s Internal Structures
Essential Questions:
1. How do seismic waves provide a detailed picture of Earth’s interior?
2. What are the names of the internal layers of the Earth and what is the composition of each layer?
3. How does the outer core produce the Earth’s magnetic field?
4. How is heat transferred from the core to the crust?
5. Who contributed to the theory of plate tectonics and what does the theory state?
6. How does the development of the Theory of Plate Tectonics demonstrate the scientific process?
7. What are the causes of plate motion and what features do they form?
8. How have computer models aided in the study of plate tectonics?
Key Vocabulary:
Inner core
Asthenosphere
Oceanic crust
Secondary waves
Continental drift
Slab pull
Transform boundary
Strike-slip fault
Outer Core
Lithosphere
Mantle
Seismograph
Mantle Convection Currents
Divergent Boundary
Normal fault
Chemical weathering
Mesosphere
Continental crust
Primary waves
Magnetic field
Ridge push
Convergent boundaries
Thrust fault
Mechanical weathering
Practice:
1. Fill in the chart below on Earth’s internal layers.
Layer
Composition
Density g/cm3
Thickness (km)
State of
matter
Temperature
Inner core
Outer core
Mesosphere
Asthenosphere
Lithosphere
Continental crust
Oceanic crust
2. Which of the above layers comprise the mantle? _______________________________________________
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Name: _____________________________________________ Pd: _______ Date: _______________
3. Label the layers of the Earth below.
4. Fill in the chart below on seismic waves.
Type of wave
Description
P-wave
S-wave
5. What instrument is used to detect earthquakes? ____________________________________________
6. Describe how Earth’s magnetic field is generated.
7. Describe how heat is transferred from the core through the mantle to the crust.
8. Fill in the chart below about the historical figures associated with plate tectonics.
Scientist
Contribution
Abraham Ortelius
Alfred Wegener
Alexander Du Toit
Harry H. Hess
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Name: _____________________________________________ Pd: _______ Date: _______________
9. Why was Wegener’s theory of continental drift rejected?
10. Briefly describe how the development of the Theory of Plate Tectonics demonstrates the scientific process.
11. Fill in the chart below about causes of plate motion.
Cause of plate motion
Text description
Mantle convection
Picture of process
Ridge push
Slab pull
12. Fill in the following chart about plate boundaries.
Plate boundary
Divergent
Text description
Picture of process
Formation produced
Convergent:
Continental-Continental
Convergent:
Oceanic-Oceanic
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Name: _____________________________________________ Pd: _______ Date: _______________
Convergent:
Oceanic-Continental
Transform
13. Fill in the following table about faults.
Type of fault
Normal
Stress that causes type of fault
Picture
Thrust
Strike-slip
14. How do computer models aid in studying the oceans?
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Name: _____________________________________________ Pd: _______ Date: _______________
Earth’s External Structures
Essential Questions
1. What surface processes produce surface formations?
2. How are different geologic processes and surface features expressed?
3. What technologies are used to explore the oceans and what are their contributions?
4. What are the surface features of the ocean floor and how do they form?
Key vocabulary
Gully
Seacaves, arches, stacks
Rockfall
U-shaped valley
Dune
HONORS, mineral
HONORS, soil profile
Continental margin
Submarine canyon
Seamount
Guyot
Valley
Soil
Canyon
Landslide
Lake (glacial erosion)
Sandbar
HONORS, Igneous, Metamorphic,
Sedimentary rocks
ROV, AUV
Continental shelf
Abyssal plain
Trench
Rill
Sinkhole
Waterfall
Mudflow
Delta
Barrier island
HONORS, Pedalfer, Pedocal,
Laterite
SONAR
Continental rise
Mid-ocean ridge
PRACTICE
1. Fill in the chart below about weathering.
Type of weathering
Mechanical
Picture of process
Description
Chemical
2. Draw pictures to show the processes that form the water and gravity erosion features in the table below.
Valleys
Rills
Soil
Gullies
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Name: _____________________________________________ Pd: _______ Date: _______________
Karst formations (caverns, lakes, springs)
Sinkholes
Canyons
Sea caves, Sea arches, Sea stacks
Rockfalls
Waterfalls
Mudflows
Landslides
3. Draw pictures to show the processes that form the features caused by glacial erosion.
U-shaped valleys
Lakes
4. How does wind cause changes in natural and human-made structures?
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Name: _____________________________________________ Pd: _______ Date: _______________
5. Draw pictures to show the processes that form the features caused by deposition.
Deltas
Dunes
Beaches, Sandbars
Barrier Islands
6. Fill in the following chart about specific geologic features found in FLORIDA
Name
Shoreline Features:
a.beaches
b.sand dunes
c.barrier islands
Description / How it formed
Floridan Aquifer
Karst Topography:
a. stalactites
b. stalagmites
c. lakes
d. springs
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Name: _____________________________________________ Pd: _______ Date: _______________
7. Fill in the following chart about specific geologic features found outside of Florida
Name
Fault lines
A-WHERE FOUND (examples) / B-Description / C-How it formed
A.
B.
C.
Rugged Mountains
A.
B.
C.
Eroded Mountains
A.
B.
C.
Canyons
A.
B.
C.
Water falls
A.
B.
C.
Volcanoes
A.
B.
C.
8. Fill in the chart below about sea floor exploration.
Type of exploration
Vessels
Description
Picture
Submersibles
a. ROV
b. AUV
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Name: _____________________________________________ Pd: _______ Date: _______________
Diving
SONAR & satellites
9. How is new ocean basin created? ____________________________________________________________
10. Label the ocean floor features in the diagram below:
a. Submarine canyon
b. Trench
c. Abyssal plain
d. Seamount
e. Guyot
f. Continental rise
g. Mid-Ocean Ridge
h. Continental slope
i. Continental margin
j. Continental shelf
Evolution
Essential questions:
1. What are the main lines of scientific evidence that support the scientific theory of evolution by natural
selection?
2. How does the theory of evolution by natural selection demonstrate the scientific process?
3. What are scientific explanations of the origin of life on Earth?
4. How do these competing hypotheses demonstrate the scientific process?
Key vocabulary
Evolution
Biogeography
HONORS, Tar seep
Panspermia
Fossilization
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Homologous structures
HONORS, mummification
HONORS, Petrification
Primordial soup
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Vestigial structures
HONORS, Amber
Hydrothermal vents
Spontaneous generation
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Name: _____________________________________________ Pd: _______ Date: _______________
Practice
1. How does the fossil record support the scientific theory of evolution?
2. Fill in the following chart.
Term
Definition/meaning in evolution
Homologous
structure
Picture
Vestigial structure
Biogeography
3. Discuss how similarities in structures among species provide evidence of evolution.
4. Briefly describe how the Theory of Evolution demonstrates the scientific process.
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
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Name: _____________________________________________ Pd: _______ Date: _______________
5. Fill out the following chart about hypotheses of origins of life.
Hypothesis
Hydrothermal vents
Description
Panspermia
Primordial soup
Spontaneous
Generation
6. How do the competing hypotheses of the origin of life on Earth demonstrates the scientific process?
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Atoms
Essential questions
1. What does the atomic theory state?
2. What fundamental forces are at work inside the atom?
3. List and describe the four states of matter.
4. Where would you expect to find each state of matter in/on our planet? The universe?
Key vocabulary
Atom
Electron
Gravitaitonal force
Weak Nuclear force
Gas
Proton
Matter
Electromagnetic force
Solid
Plasma
Neutron
Mass
Strong Nuclear force
Liquid
Practice
1. Fill in the table describing the structure of an atom.
Name of Particle
Charge
Mass
Location within Atom
Proton
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Name: _____________________________________________ Pd: _______ Date: _______________
Neutron
Electron
2. Describe how matter is composed of units called atoms.
3. Of the fundamental forces (Gravitational, Weak Nuclear, Strong Nuclear, and Electromagnetic) the two below
are at work in the atom. Fill in the chart.
Type of Force
Role in the Atom
Draw a picture
Electromagnetic
Strong Nuclear
4. What is matter?
5. Fill in the following table describing the four states of matter.
State of Matter
How are the molecules organized & how do
they move?
Picture Example
Solid
Liquid
Gas
Plasma
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Name: _____________________________________________ Pd: _______ Date: _______________
6. Where would you expect to find each state of matter in/on:
Our planet?
Universe?
Solid:
Solid
Liquid:
Liquid
Gas:
Gas
Plasma
Earth’s Cycles
Essential questions
1. How does matter move through the biosphere?
2. How does water cycle through the biosphere?
3. What are the names of Earth’s systems?
4. How are the systems different?
5. How do different systems interact with each other?
6. What patterns exist within Earth’s ocean currents?
7. What causes currents?
8. What impact does the Coriolis Effect have on currents?
9. What effects do currents have on climate?
Key vocabulary
Hydrosphere
Geosphere
Nitrogen Cycle
Ocean Currents
Convection
Atmosphere
Biosphere
Hydrologic (Water) Cycle
Coriolis Effect
Density
Cryosphere
Carbon Cycle
Phosphorus Cycle
Salinity
Hemisphere
1. Label the nitrogen cycle. Use the following terms (one term will be used more than once).
bacteria fixation
denitrification
fertilizers
lightning fixation
plant
consumption
nitrification
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Name: _____________________________________________ Pd: _______ Date: _______________
2. How do the hydrosphere and biosphere interact on Earth?
3. How does the cryosphere affect the geosphere?
4. Label the phosphorus cycle. Use the following terms:
Dead organisms
1.
bacteria in soil
2.
rock
Uplifting of rock
3.
weathering of
rock
4.
5.
runoff
6.
5. How do the cryosphere and hydrosphere affect ocean salinity?
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Name: _____________________________________________ Pd: _______ Date: _______________
6. Explain how the atmosphere and hydrosphere interact to create weather.
7. Label the carbon cycle. Use the following terms:
carbonification
combustion
dead organisms
and animal waste
decay
diffusion
photosynthesis
respiration
runoff
sedimentation
8. Label the water cycle. Use the following terms (one term will be used more than once).
Condensation
Precipitation
Transpiration
Evaporation
Runoff
Accumulation
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Name: _____________________________________________ Pd: _______ Date: _______________
9. Describe how the water cycle is driven by the energy of the sun.
10. Using colored pencils, draw the general trends of currents. Use RED arrows to indicate warm currents and
BLUE arrows to indicate cold currents in both hemispheres.
11. Describe the causes of surface and deep ocean currents.
12. How do ocean currents transfer heat?
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Name: _____________________________________________ Pd: _______ Date: _______________
13. What impact do ocean currents have on the transfer of energy & climate?
14. Describe how the Coriolis Effect acts differently based on location on Earth.
15. Describe the movement of heat energy by the process of convection.
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