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Prime Numbers: A number that only has 2 factors, the number 1 and itself. Ex: 5 - 5 is a prime number because the only factors for 5 are 1 and 5. Your turn: Name any 5 prime numbers. Composite Numbers: A number that more than 2 factors. Ex: 20 - 20 is a composite number because it has more than 2 factors. The factors are: 1, 2, 4, 5, 10, 20 Your turn: Name any 5 composite numbers. Factor: numbers that are multiplied to get a product. Ex: 18 - all the factors of 18 are: 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 18 Factors start with 1 and end with the number itself. Your turn: Write all the factors for: 14 ___________________________________________ 27 ___________________________________________ Product: The answer to numbers being multiplied Ex: 6 x 2 = 12 12 is the product (it is also a multiple of both 6 and 2) Your turn: what are the products for the following? 5 x 7 = _______ 8 x 7 = _______ Multiple: the product of a whole number and another whole number. Ex: Multiples of 2: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20 etc… 2 x 1 = 2 (2 is a multiple), 2 x 2 = 4 (4 is a multiple), 2 x 3 = 6 (6 is a multiple) … Multiples are infinite, there is no end Your turn: Write any three multiples for: 7 ___________________________________________ 100 ___________________________________________ Greatest Common Factor (GCF)- The greatest factor that two or more numbers share. Ex: Factors of 16 1 16 2 Factors of 24 12 8 4 24 3 6 When looking in the intersection of Venn diagram, the highest common factor is 8, therefore 8 is the GCF. Your turn: Find the GCF of 12 and 36. You can do it with Venn diagrams, Tcharts, or however you’d like. GCF of 12 and 36 _______ When reading word problems that have key words/phrases such as: greatest amount, greatest numbers, highest amount this means you need to find the GCF of both numbers given. Example: Shelly wants to create party bags for her birthday. She has 24 candy bars and 12 ring pops. I the party bags need to be the same without anything left over, what is the greatest number of bags can she make? 24 12 1 24 1 12 2 12 2 6 3 8 3 4 4 6 Since 12 is the greatest common factor, she can make 12 bags. Least Common Multiple LCM - The least multiple that 2 numbers share. Ex: multiples of 4 4 8 multiples of 5 5 16 20 10 15 12 40 25 30 35 When looking in the intersection of Venn diagram, the lowest common multiple is 20 of 4 and 5 is 20, therefore, the LCM is 20. Your turn: Find the LCM of 15 and 12. You can do it with Venn diagrams, lined, or however you’d like. When reading word problems that have key words/phrases such as: Together again, again, at the same time, both this means you need to find the LCM of both numbers given. Example: Matthew goes hiking every 3 days and swimming every 5 days. He did both activities today. How many days from now will he go both hiking and swimming again? Multiples of 3: 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21… Multiples of 5: 5, 10, 15, 20… Since 15 is the lowest common multiple, Matthew will swim and hike on the same day in 15 days.