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Transcript
Exercises in Statistical Mechanics
Based on course by Doron Cohen, has to be proofed
Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel
This exercises pool is intended for a graduate course in “statistical mechanics”. Some of the
problems are original, while other were assembled from various undocumented sources. In particular some problems originate from exams that were written by B. Horovitz (BGU), S. Fishman
(Technion), and D. Cohen (BGU).
====== [Exercise 7489]
The Kubo formula
Particles with charge e and velocities vi couple to an external vector potential by Vint = − ec
P
field is E = − 1c ∂A
i vi .
∂t . The current density (per unit volume) is j = e
P
i
vi · A and the electric
(a) Identify the response function for an a component field with a given frequency, Ea (ω), in terms of the conductivity
σ(ω) where ja = σ(ω)Ea (assume an isotropic system so that σ(ω) is a scaler). Deduce the energy dissipation
rate in terms of σ(ω) and Ea (ω). Compare with Ohm’s law. What is the symmetry of Reσ(ω) when ω changes
sign?
(b) Use the fluctuation dissipation theorem to show the (classical) Kubo formula:
Z ∞
1
hja (0) · ja (t)i cos(ωt)dt
Reσ(ω) =
kB T 0
(c) Write the Diffusion constant D in terms of the velocity-velocity correlation function, assuming that this correlation has a finite range in time.
Use Kubo’s formula from (b) in the DC limit of zero frequency to derive the Einstein-Nernst formula for the
σ
mobility µ = ne
= eD/kB T , where n is the particle density. (assume here uncorrelated particles).
(d) The quantum current noise is defined as
Z ∞
S(ω) =
dthja (t)ja (0) + ja (0)ja (t)i cos(ωt).
0
Use the quantum FDT to relate this noise to the conductivity. When is the classical result (b) valid? What is
the noise at T = 0?