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5860 Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 8(12): 5860-5876, 2012 ISSN 1819-544X This is a refereed journal and all articles are professionally screened and reviewed ORIGINAL ARTICLES Geological studies of the coastal area between Mersa um Gheig and Ras Banas , Red Sea coast, Egypt 1 EL-Wekeil, S.S.; 1EL-Bady, M.S.M.; 2Ramadan, F.S. & 3Kaiser, S.H. 1 National Research Center Faculty of science, Zagazig University 3 (EMRA) Egyptian Mineral Resources Authority 2 ABSTRACT Egypt's Red Sea coast runs from the Gulf of Suez to the Sudanese border. The length of the study area between Mersa um Gheig and Ras Banas is about 240 km. The main geomorphological unit in the study area includes mountains (basement), shoreline, beach, alluvial fan, and flood plain. The study area studied by tow methods: 1- sedimentological and mineralogical (Geologic) methods 2- remote sensing methods. The geologic method give a light picture about the composition of the beach, where the beach sediments range from calcareous sand in the north of the study area (Mersa um Gheig, the sand percent 86.83%) to carbonate beach in the south of the study area (Ras Banas, the carbonate percent 96.78%). Also the heavy minerals in the beach sand studied in fine (0.250-0.125mm) and very fine(0.125 – 0.063mm) fractions (average percentages of two fractions) to shed more light on the nature of the source rocks and their sedimentary history. Opaques and non Opaques (Amphibole, Epidote, staurolite, Zircon, Muscovite, Chlorite, Garnet, Rutile) are studied in detail as averages in both fine and very fine fractions. The heavy metals (elements) in the study area estimated and interpreted, where, Ba range from 10.1 to 315 ppm, Sr range from 548 to 2800 ppm, Cr range from 0.0 to 250 ppm, , Ni range from 0.0 to 103ppm, Cu from 10 to 35ppm, Zn from 0.0 to 94 ppm, Sc from 0.0 to 17.6 ppm, V from 0.0 to 277 ppm, Y from 0.0 to 9ppm, and Mo from 2 to 16 ppm. The remote sensing method also used in this area for study the sedimentation changes in many selected sites. Finally the purpose of this study is determination the geological and environmental properties of each beach in the selected sites and the suitable of each site for different sustainable development activities. Key words: Red Sea, Sedimentation, Heavy Minerals, Contamination Factor ,beach, Wadi Introduction The total length of the Egyptian Red Sea coast is about 2000 km. The Red Sea is a semi-enclosed sea bordered by seven countries Egypt, Eritrea, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Yemen. The Red Sea is well known for its extensive and easily accessible coastal fringing coral reefs, and their clear and warm waters. The red sea rift system were formed in the Late Oligocene – Early Miocene in response to the NE separation of Arabia away from Africa (McKenzie et al., 1970; Pichon, and Francheteau, 1978; Meshref, 1990; Morgan, 1990; Coleman, 1993; Purser and Bosence, 1998), with part of the plate movement taken up by opening of the Gulf of Suez rift during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene (Mckenzie et al., 1970; Girdler and Southren, 1987; Hempton, 1987; Joffe and Garfunkel, 1987; Coleman, 1993). In the Late Miocene, continued opening of the Red Sea become linked to sinistral offset along the Gulf of Aqaba-Levant Transform( Freund, 1970; Ben-Menahem et al., 1976). The stratigraphy of the western side of Red Sea are studied by many of authors (Said, 1990; Purser and Boscence, 1998 and Khalil, and McClay, (2009)) (Fig. 1). Where these authors studied the lithostratigraphy and facies variations of Cretaceous to Quaternary deposits as well as the tectonic events. The most of the western coast of the Red Sea is characterized by arid climate and dominated by hot temperatures, rainless summer and mild winter. The average annual precipitation rate is about 17.4 mm (meteorological stations of Ras Banas). The monthly mean temperature varies between 24-38o C during summer and 12-26oC during winter. The relative humidity varies between 28% in summer and 59% in winter. The average evaporation, transpiration varies between 8.7 mm/day in winter and 28 mm/day in summer. Rainfall in the Red Sea region is extremely sparse and is usually localized in the form of short showers. (Azab,2009). Corresponding Author: El-Bady, M.S.M, National Research Center Mobile: +201223333204; E-mail: [email protected] 5861 J. Appl. Sci. Res., 8(12): 5860-5876, 2012 Fig. 1: Stratigraphy of the western Red Sea, (Said, 1990; Purser and Boscence, 1998 ; Khalil and McClay (2009)). Increased sea surface temperatures due to global warming may increase the frequency and intensity of hurricanes (Webster et al., 2005) These changes in storm frequency and their intensity could also change patterns of alongshore sediment transport. Nicholls et al., (2008) stated that to better support climate and coastal management policy development, more integrated assessments of climate change in coastal areas are required, including the significant non-climate changes. According to (USAID,2008) Salinity in the Red Sea is generally high due to high evaporation, low precipitation, and the lack of a major river inflow. Salinity is usually lower in the southern region. Salinity in the north is around 41,000 parts per million (ppm) while in the south, it is 38,000 ppm. According to OrszagSperber, et al.(2001) The major processes responsible for shallow-water evaporite precipitation are controlled by two types of factors: the basin geometry and the unique or rhythmic changes of its surrounding environment. Where, the evaporation in many areas in Red Sea region is very high (about 235 cm/year). Both include relative sea-level changes that may be interpreted in terms of eustacy as well as tectonic. The Quaternary evaporites illustrate the effect of eustatic and climatic variations at various scales of times. 5862 J. Appl. Sci. Res., 8(12): 5860-5876, 2012 Wind direction in Red Sea region , wind north latitude 19o is northerly most of the year, but in the south, wind is generally controlled by monsoon system of the Arabian Sea. In winter the SW wind prevails and the wind is from NW in summer. The mean sea level in Red Sea region is highest in winter and lowest in summer due to the water evaporation. The hydrodynamic features of the Red Sea coast shown that the temporal and spatial currents variation is as low as 0.5 m and are governed mostly by wind. In summer, northwest winds drive surface water south for about 4 months at a velocity of 15–20 centimeters per second (cm/s), whereas in winter the flow is reversed resulting in the inflow of water from the Gulf of Aden into the Red Sea (USAID,2008). The net value of the latter predominates, resulting in an overall drift to the northern end of the Red Sea. Generally, the velocity of the tidal current is between 50–60 cm/s, with a maximum of 1 m/s at the mouth of the El-Kharrar Lagoon. However, the range of north–northeast current along the Saudi coast is 8–29 cm/s , (USAID,2008). (Fig. 2). Fig. 2: Red Sea Currents (from, USAID,2008) The coastal zone attracts the greatest number of tourists (Davenport and Davenport, 2006) and the greatest growth in tourism is occurring in the sub-sector of coastal and marine tourism (UNEP, 2009). Coastal and marine tourism activities are diverse, and include activities on the shore (e.g. walking, curio collecting, animal observation, off-road vehicle tours), in coastal waters (e.g. swimming, surfing, boating), in offshore waters (cruising, marine mammal observation, fishing), under the water (e.g. diving, shark feeding), and specialist niche activities (e.g. marine research tourism, adventure tourism) (Hall, 2001; Orams, 2007; Wood, 2010). The tourism industry represents 5% of global economic activity (Buckley, 2011). With an annual growth rate of 6.2%, the annual economic value of tourism surpassed US$1 trillion in 2011 and the number of international tourist arrivals is predicted to reach 1 billion in 2012 (UNWTO, 2012a). Seen as an expanding source of economic growth, developing nations have invested in their tourism industries and in 2010 these destinations represented 47% of global tourism activity (UNWTO, 2012b). In the Red Sea, most notably in Egypt, the earliest development of tourism infrastructure such as resorts, jetties, walkways, artificial lagoons, artificial beaches, and groynes led to habitat through infilling, dredging, digging, siltation, and replacement with buildings. The Red Sea region has been targeted for massive tourism development in Egypt. The majority of the resorts were built along a coastal stretch of the Red Sea with about 50 - 300 m coastal setback depending on the shoreline conditions (Dewidar, 2011) The study area and Sampling: The total length of the studied coastal area of Red Sea about 240 km extend from Mersa Um Gheig (25o 43\ N , 34o 33\ E) to Ras Banas (24o 13\ N , 35o 24\ E) (Fig. 3). The narrow coastal plain of the studied area of Red Sea lies between the high fringing mountains consisting mostly of crystalline rocks and the seawater. It is a low topographic feature of a variable width ranging between 1 km as in Wadi Samadai to 5.3 km as in Wadi Um Tundoba. Fifteen sites in the coastal area of Red Sea (between Mersa Um Gheig and Ras Banas) chosen to collection of samples, where each sample (surface sample) represented for each site (Fig. 3). The samples were collected from the coastal plain of each site near the shoreline (beach face) to study the sedimentological and mineralogical properties. 58663 J. Appl. Sci. Res., 8(12): 586 60-5876, 2012 Material and a Methods o this area aree topographic m map of 1986, satellite imagees of 2000 andd 2012, geologgic Materiials of study of maps of EGSMA as welll as fifteen rep presentative saamples. Also field f observatioons and previo ous works of thhe Red Sea cooastal area are considered. Carbonate contents of o the samples were determinned using warm m HCL (10%) aand following the procedure of moving the carrbonates, the saamples were trreated by H2O O2 (15%) in orrder to removinng Ireland (19958). After rem the organicc matter. The sand s and mud fractions were determined by y wet sieving uusing the 0.0633 mm sieve. Thhe obtained daata was plotted d on the ternary y diagram of Fuchtbauer and Muller (1970)). Quanttitative microsscopic examinnation were ccarried out on o the heavy mineral com mponents of 15 1 representattive samples coollected from the t sites of the studied area (b beach face). Thhe size fractionns (fine and veery fine) weree chosen for th his investigatiion. These fractions were fiirst treated wiith HCL (10% %) and Stannouus chloride inn order to remoove iron oxidees coatings. Sepparation of heavy minerals w was carried ouut by bromoforrm (sp.gr. 2.855) and following method prooposed by Carrver (1971). Th he heavy fractiions were deteermined for eacch sample, whhere the heavyy fractions weere mounted inn Canada Balssam on glass slides s (Allman n and Lawrencce, 1972) and d the various mineral m constiitutes were iddentified using g reflect light (polarizing microscope). m Thhe relative prooportions of th he minerals enccountered weree determined byy counting at least of 300 graains. The opaquue and non-oppaque heavy minerals m are calculated, and thhe individual noon-opaque heaavy minerals arre calculated ass a relative peercentages of total non-opaqu ue minerals byy previous cou unting using thhe polarizing microscope. m Thhe trace elem ments (Ba, Sr, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Z Sc, V, Y, and Mo) are determined inn the central laaboratory of thhe Geologicall survey. Thee elements haad been determ mined by Induuctively Couppled Plasma Optical O Emissioon Spectromeeter (I.C.P O.E.S) instrument, model Perkinn Elmer 3000, it is a powerfuul tool for the determination d of metals(majjor and trace elements) e in a variety v of diffeerent sample matrices. m It is cconsists of threee parts:1- Raddio Frequency(RF) generatorr 2- Sample inntroduction system 3- Spectroometer e has a recommended r h dissolved by b Each element wavelength linne free from innterference. All the samples had acid digesttion procedure before introduucing to the insstrument. The remote r sensingg method also used in this area for study the geomorph hologic changge detection, ddetermination of the shorelline changes and a the rate of i 2012. sedimentattion in many seelected sites byy using satellitee landsat imagees of 2000 and google earth image Fig. 3: Eleevations map sh howing the stuudy area and sampling Sedimeents and sedim mentation in thee study area Accorrding to El Mam mony and Rifaaat, (2001) Thee main sourcess of sediments to the beachess of the Egyptiaan Red Sea arre terrestrial deposits transpoorted from the fringing moun ntains during tthe occasional runoffs througgh the numeroous wadis, and the Middle Miocene and lateer biogenic carrbonate sedimeents. 5864 J. Appl. Sci. Res., 8(12): 5860-5876, 2012 The most of coastal areas of Red Sea receive sediments from two different sources; the terrigenous rock fragments from the hinter land mountains and skeletal carbonates from the sea (i.e.,siliclastic and carbonate sediments ,respectively). In these mixed environments, the terrigenous components are introduced from out side the depositional basin, whereas the skeletal carbonates originates mainly from near the depositional basin. The skeletal carbonates have a remarkably limited history of transportation and deposition. (Mansour,1995) Careful examination of the data Carbonate - Sand -Mud in various beach sediments in the study area (Table. 1, Fig. 4) reveal that: Carbonate and sand are highly constitutes. The sand content of the sediments are remarkably higher toward the north of the study area, while the carbonate content remarkably higher towards the south of the study area. The carbonates fraction is strongly occurring in the Ras Banas, Wadi Areik and Wadi Waseat as well as in Abu Dabbab. The sand fraction strongly presented in Mersa Um Gheig, Wadi Laseifa, Wadi Ghadir, Wadi ELGemal and Sharm ELFaqiri. The distribution of these sediment along the coastal area depend on the source rocks, the effect of physical marine processes as waves and currents along the coastal area as well as the local sedimentary conditions of each site in the study area. Sedimentation in the study area have been studied especially in five sites (Mersa Um Gheig, EL Tormocy, Wadi Mubarak, Wadi Abu Dabbab and Wadi ELGemal) due to the large length of the study area. the surface areas of the coastal plain changed due to the changes in the rate of sedimentation resulting from the flooding and other conditions. The changes in coastal plain studied by satellite images of 2000 and 2012. The surface area in Mersa Um Gheig is 0.2 sq. miles in satellite image of 2000 where the surface area increase to reach 0.33 sq. miles, where the surface area north this site is 0.23 sq. miles in the satellite image of 2012. Table 1: Show the Compositional analyses of the studied samples Sample No. 1 2 Name Mersa Gheig Wadi Laseifa Location um Um 3 Um Greifat 4 Wadi um Areik 5 Wadi Mubarak 6 Wadi Waseat 7 Wadi Dabbab 8 Wadi Igla 9 Wadi Samadai 10 Wadi Tundoba 11 Wadi Ghadir 12 Sharm elfaqiri abu Um 13 Wadi ElGemal 14 Wadi Malek El Oud 15 Ras Banas o \ 25 43 N 34o 33\ E 25o 41\ N 34 o 27\ E 25 o 36\ N 34 o 36\ E 25 o 35\ N 34 o 36\ E 25 o 30\ N 34 o 39\ E 25 o 23\ N 34 o 42\ E 25 o 16\ N 34 o 46\ E 25 o 10\ N 34 o 50\ E 25 o 3\ N 34 o 54\ E 24 o 54\ N 34 o 58\ E 24 o 49\ N 34 o 59\ E 24 o 26\ N 35 o 12\ E 24 o 21\ N 35 o 17\ E 24 o 13\ N 35 o 24\ E 23 59\ N 35 40\ E Carbonate % Sand % Mud % Nomenclature 12.41 86.83 0.76 Calcareous sand 11.99 86.41 1.6 Calcareous sand 43.69 54.72 1.6 Calcareous sand 68.84 30.58 0.58 Sandy carbonate 43.59 55.49 0.92 Calcareous sand 66.18 33.13 0.7 Sandy carbonate 57.42 41.57 1.01 Sandy carbonate 39.77 58.42 1.51 Calcareous sand 51.4 46.44 2.16 Sandy carbonate 54.99 43.16 1.85 Sandy carbonate 26.11 73.35 0.54 Calcareous sand 16.09 82.61 1.3 Calcareous sand 38.23 59.65 2.12 Calcareous sand 69.24 29.67 1.09 Sandy carbonate 96.78 2.83 0.33 carbonate 5865 J. Appl. Sci. Res., 8(12): 5860-5876, 2012 % of Fractions Carbonate 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Sand Mud Beach sites Fig. 4: Showing the compositioal analysis of the study area In ELTormocy site south the Mersa Um Gheig site also increased with time ( 0.3 sq. miles in 2000 and 0.43 sq. miles in 2012) (Fig. 5). In Wadi Mubarak the suface areas increased with time (1.04 sq. miles in 2000 and 1.6 sq. miles in 2012) (Fig 6 ). In Wadi Abu Dabbab and Mersa Shakra, the surface areas of the coastal plain from 2000 to 2012 are the same without any changes, where the surface areas are 0.18 and 0.36 respectively (Fig. 6). Finally in Wadi ELGemal, the suface areas are increased also (1.7 sq. miles in 2000 and 3.6 sq. miles in 2012)(Fig. 6). (A) (B) Fig. 5: Show the sedimentation in the Um Gheig and El Tormocy sites in satellite image 2000 (A) and satellite image 2012 (B) 5866 J. Appl. Sci. Res., 8(12): 5860-5876, 2012 Fig. 6: Show the sedimentation in the Wadi Mubarak site in satellite image 2000 (A) and satellite image 2012 (B), in the Wadi Abu Dabbab site in satellite image 2000 (C) and satellite image 2012 (D) and in the Wadi ELGemal site in satellite image 2000 (E) and satellite image 2012 (F) 5867 J. Appl. Sci. Res., 8(12): 5860-5876, 2012 Heavy minerals in the study area: The identified heavy minerals in the study area are represented by; non-opaque minerals including; amphiboles, epidotes, rutile, garnet, Staurolite, Muscovite, Chlorite, and zircon in addition to opaque minerals. Heavy minerals studied in the fine and very fine sand fractions. But the averages percents of heavy minerals (Table. 2) are interpreted as following: The average percentages of Opaques (Table. 2 and Fig. 7) in the study area are range from 10.05 % in Wadi Abu Dabaab to 75.69 % in Mersa Um Gheig. The average percentages of non-opaques (Table. 2 and Fig. 8) as following: Average percents of Amphibole are range from 21.12% in Mersa Um Gheig to 87.38 % in Wadi Abu Dabaab. Average percentages of Epidote are range from 1.80% in Mersa Um Gheig to 9.85% in Sharm ELFaqiri. Average percentages of Staurolite are range from 0.00% in Mersa Um Gheig, Wadi Um Laseifa, Wadi Abu Dabaab, Wadi Igla, Sharm EL-Faqiri and Wadi Malek ELAud to 0.65% in Wadi Um Tundoba. Zircon average percentages are range from 0.6% in Wadi Abu Dabaab to 2.8% in Wadi Um Areik. Muscovite average percentages are range from 0.00 % in Mersa Um Gheig, Wadi Um Greifat, Wadi Waseat, Wadi Abu Dabaab, Wadi Samadai, Wadi Um Tundoba, Wadi Ghadir, Sharm EL-Faqiri, Wadi EL-Gemal and Wadi Malek ELAud to 0.6% in Wadi Mubarak. Chlorite average percentages are 0.00% in most of sites except in Mersa Um Gheig, Um Greifat, Wadi Mubarak and Wadi Ghadir. Garnet average percentages are range from 0.00% in Mersa Um Gheig, Wadi Um Greifat, Wadi Um Areik, Wadi Abu Dabaab, Wadi Igla, Wadi Samadai and Wadi Ghadir to 1.1% in Wadi Um Laseifa. Rutile average percentages are 0.00% in all sites except in Wadi Greifat (0.07%) and Wadi Mubarak (0.07%) (Table. 2). The opaques/non-opaques Ratio (O/N-O) (Table. 2 and Fig. 9) were studied. The highest ratio of O/N-O is recorded in Mersa um Gheig (3.11) and the lowest ratio presented in Wadi Abu Dabaab (0.11). The lowest O/NO value was recorded at many localities (Table. 2) due to the source rocks of these localities are mainly metavolcanic and metagabbro. The highest O/N-O value was recorded some localities (Table. 2) due to the highest occurrence of the opaque minerals, where the source rocks are mainly magmatic and metamorphic rocks rich in opaque minerals. According to the density, the heavy minerals classified into two group, the first group consists of amphiboles, Epidotes, Staurolite, Muscovite and Chlorite, while the second group is consists of rutile, garnet, zircon and opaques. Minerals of the second group have higher densities than minerals of the first group and are also smaller in size than first group. The Minerals of the second group (higher densities) are difficult to transport by currents, waves and winds, while the minerals of the first group (lower densities) are easy transported by currents, waves and winds. In the samples of the studied areas showing that the first group heavy minerals (lower densities) are highly occurred in fine sand fraction while the second group heavy minerals (higher densites) are highly occurred in very fine fraction (Table. 2). Factors controlling variation of heavy minerals on regional bases are discussed by several authors (Davies and Moore, 1970; Flores and Shideler, 1978; Soliman, 1992; and others). They commented that the variation may be due to the following factors: 1) Petrographic nature of source rock and its local variability, 2) Selective chemical decomposition at the source and at the site of deposition, 3) Differential mechanical destruction during transportation and 4) Hydraulic fractionation by size, shape and Density. Thus heavy minerals have a great value in solving many problems related to depositional environment as; lithology of source rocks, transportation history, climates and relief, correlation, paleogeography, tectonism and provenance studies (Folk,1980). The Opaques (Fig. 7) have highest values in Mersa Um Gheig, Wadi Ghadir,Wadi Um Tundoba, Wadi Malek ELAud, Wadi ELGemal and Wadi Um Laseifa where the source rocks of these areas are mainly magmatic and metamorphic rocks. Also Opaques may be high due to the winnowing action of waves at the beach and tidal flat zones and the highest effect of the land filling (Dar,2002). Abundance of Amphiboles Wadi Abu Dabbab, Wadi Waseat, Wadi Mubarak, Wadi Igla, Wadi Um Greifat and Wadi Um Areik due to the disintegrated Precambrian basic metavolcanic rocks or from sedimentary rocks near the study area. The relatively high occurrence of ultrastable minerals (zircon, rutile, garnet) in Um Laseifa, Wadi ELGemal, Wadi Um Greifat and Wadi Areik derived from the near sedimentary succession along the study area. According to Dar, (1998) presence of high percentage of metastable minerals (Minerals may not be stable) dominates a continuous supply of fresh sediments from the Red Sea Mountains. Chlorite is common as a secondary mineral, forming after mafic minerals, in rocks of many types. It may also be a primary mineral in low- to medium-grade metamorphic rocks. In the study area occur in many areas such as Wadi Ghadir and Wadi Mubarak due to the presence of metamorphic rocks as the source rock or by the effect of physical marine processes as waves and currents along the coastal area. Muscovite is the most common mica, found in granites, pegmatites, gneisses, and schists, , associated with quartz and feldspars,and as a contact metamorphic rock or as a secondary mineral resulting from the alteration of topaz, feldspar, kyanite. In the study area, it occur specially in Wadi Mubarak, its presence due to the presence of granite and other metamorphic rocks or due to the effect of physical marine processes as waves and currents along the coastal area. 5868 J. Appl. Sci. Res., 8(12): 5860-5876, 2012 Staurolite is a regional metamorphic mineral of intermediate to high grade. It occurs with almandine garnet, micas, kyanite; as well as albite, biotite, and sillimanite in gneiss and schist of regional metamorphic rocks. In the study area, it occur specially in Wadi Um Tundoba and Wadi Greifat due to the presence of granite and other metamorphic rocks or due to the effect of physical marine processes as waves and currents along the coastal area. Epidote is an abundant rock-forming mineral, but one of secondary origin. It occurs in marble and schistose rocks of metamorphic origin. It is also a product of hydrothermal alteration of various minerals (feldspars, micas, pyroxenes, amphiboles, garnets, and others) composing igneous rocks. In the study area, it occur ecpeically in Sharm ELFaqiri, Malek ELAud, Wadi Mubarak and Wadi ELGemal due to mainly the presence of the metamorphic rocks or also due to the effect of physical marine processes as waves and currents along the coastal area. Finally, On beaches, heavy minerals are often concentrated in rather localized spots, usually in the swash zone of the wave run-up or at eroding cliffs (Meijer et al., 2001). According to Carranza-Edwards et al. (2001), the heavy minerals content is not related to grain size, sorting, or sand provenance. The distribution of heavy minerals could be controlled by inland sources and probably related to settling conditions of particles and local sedimentological processes. The studied sediments are derived from different sources. Acidic igneous rocks are the main sources of the ultrastable heavy minerals such as zircon and rutile. The metamorphic sources are evidenced by the presence of epidotes, bluish green amphiboles, in addition to garnet. Garnet, epidotes, and zircon are indicative of high-rank metamorphic rocks. Amphiboles are minerals of either igneous or metamorphic origin; in the former case occurring as constituents (hornblende) of igneous rocks, such as granite, diorite, andesite and others. Calcium is sometimes a constituent of naturally occurring amphiboles. Those of metamorphic origin include examples such as those developed in limestones by contact metamorphism (tremolite) and those formed by the alteration of other ferromagnesian minerals (hornblende). Pseudomorphs of amphibole after pyroxene are known as uralite. Amphiboles in the study area are probably derived from calc-alkaline granitoids or metamorphic rocks. Opaques may be derived from magmatic and metamorphic rocks as well as sedimentary rocks. The writers believe that the variation in the relative abundance of the main heavy minerals along the studied coast is due to both the differences in sources and the effect of physical marine processes as waves and currents along the coastal area as well as local sedimentological processes Fig. 7: The average percentages of Opaques in the study area Wad i ElG ema 51.7 6 40.1 35 Wadi Male k El Oud 55.6 1 35.2 3 55.26 Wad i Gha dir 65.5 4 37.13 26.5 Shar m elfa qiri 38.7 3 48.9 6 2.84 5.06 4.37 9.85 5.30 6.56 0.00 0.245 0.65 0.40 0.00 0.07 0.00 0.85 1.84 1.63 2.32 1.99 2.66 2.36 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.83 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.26 0.000 0.00 0.00 0.46 0.00 0.07 0.00 0.22 0.00 0.36 0.66 1.23 1.90 0.63 1.07 1.25 Wadi Igla 26.4 8 69.3 0 Wadi Sama dai 40.08 5 54.99 5 3.26 Wadi Um Tund oba as Ba nas Mainly Carbonates Table 2: Showing the Average Heavy Minerals percent in the study area Wadi Wadi Wadi Wadi Mers Heav abu Wadi Wadi um Um a um Um y Daba Muba Wase Lasei Greif Arei Miner Ghei ab at rak k at fa g al Opaq 47.8 34.9 37.9 10.0 ues 75.69 5 0 9 28.68 29.15 5 Amph 45.8 59.7 55.3 87.3 ibole 21.12 0 2 8 62.89 63.42 8 Epido te 1.80 3.13 4.08 3.46 5.33 4.73 1.97 Staur olite 0.00 0.00 0.62 0.16 0.595 0.235 0.00 Zirco n 1.18 1.97 0.52 2.83 1.495 2.315 0.6 Musc 0.16 ovite 0.00 0.14 0.00 5 0.605 0.00 0.00 Chlor ite 0.20 0.00 0.07 0.00 0.255 0.00 0.00 Garne t 0.00 1.10 0.00 0.00 0.075 0.155 0.00 Rutile 0.00 0.00 0.07 0.00 0.075 0.00 0.00 O/NO 3.11 0.91 0.53 0.61 0.40 0.41 0.11 5869 J. Appl. Sci. Res., 8(12): 5860-5876, 2012 Fig. 8: The average percentages of non-opaques of the study area Fig. 9: Showing O/N-O ratio of the study area Heavy Metals in the study area: Heavy metals is a general collective term which applies to the group of metals and metalloids with atomic density greater than 4 g/cm3 or 5 times or more, greater than water (Nriagu and Pacyna, 1988; Hawkes, 1997). In the last four decades, the industrial and human activities in the coastal area of Egypt have increased dramatically and resulted in the continuous invasion of different types of pollutants including heavy metals. Human Activities have brought numerous potentially hazardous trace elements to the environment particularly in the industrial period (Nriago,1996). The concentration and distribution of ten metals (Ba, Sr, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sc, V, Y and Mo) (Table. 3) were determind to understand the effect of impact action on the quality of marine sediments. Samples were analyzed in marine sediments from Marsa Um Gheig in the as a north limit of the study area to Ras Banas as the southern limit of the study area (Table 3). According to El-Taher and Madkour, (2011) The behavior of heavy metals in the studied wadies marine sediments is complex due to seasonal and geographic variations in the terrigenous fluxes by these wadis. Generally, there is no relation between most heavy metals and depth and distance from shore line. The result is the high contribution of terrigenous fragments by wadis represents the control factor of increasing heavy metals where the beach and intertidal zone samples recorded the high values. The study on the concentrations of heavy metal pollution in the Egyptian Red Sea, over 50 years period (1934–1984), has shown that the concentrations of most of the heavy metals has increased, due to natural pollution from hot brine pools or due to man-made pollution from oil, heavy metal mining, discharge of domestic industrial wastes and phosphate mining and transportation along the Red Sea coastal areas (Hanna, 1992). Phosphate ore dust spilled over into the Sea during shipping is considered as a continuous source for contaminating the Red Sea coastal environment (IOC, 1997 and Said, 1990). The contamination factor (CF) (Tomlinson, et al.,1980) in the study area is determined and it defined as the metal concentration in sediment divided by some background base value for each element. The back- ground value corresponds to the baseline concentrations reported by Wedepohl, (1995) and is based on element abundances in sedimentary rocks (shale) of the earth crust. The terminologies used to describe the 5870 J. Appl. Sci. Res., 8(12): 5860-5876, 2012 contamination factor are: CF< 1 low contaminated; 1 < CF < 3 moderate contamination; 3 < CF < 6 considerable contamination and CF > 6 high contamination. It was observed that CF values (Table. 4, Fig. 10 and 11) in Mersa Um Gheig showing that the contamination range from low to high contamination, where Sr represent the high contamination, Mo and Ni represent the considerable contamination, Cu represent the moderate contamination and the other metals represent the low contamination. In Wadi Um Laseifa, Ba showing the low contamination, Sr, Cu, Zn, Sc, Y and Mo represent the moderate contamination, while Cr, Ni, V are represent the considerable contamination. In Wadi Um Greifat, Mo represent the high contamination, Sr represent the considerable contamination, while the all other metals represent the low contamination. In Wadi Um Areik, Sr the high contamination, Mo represent considerable contamination, Ni and Cu represent the moderate contamination, while the others represent the low contamination. In Wadi Mubarak, Ni and Mo represent the considerable contamination, Sr, Cr, Cu, Sc and V represent the moderate contamination, while the others metals represent low contamination. In Wadi Waseat, Sr represent considerable contamination, Cu and Mo represent moderate contamination, while the others metals represent the low contamination. In Wai Abu Dabbab, Sr represent the high contamination, Ni, Cu and Mo represent the moderate contamination, while the others represent the low contamination. In Wadi Igla, Sr represent the considerable contamination, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sc, and V represent the moderate contamination, while the others represent low contamination. In Wadi Samadai, Cr represent the high contamination, Ni and V represent the considerable contamination ,Sr, Cu, Zn, Sc and Mo represent the moderate contamination, while the others represent low contamination. In Wadi Um Tundoba, Sr represent the high contamination, Cr represent the considerable contamination ,Ni, Cu, V and Mo represent the moderate contamination, while the others represent the low contamination. In Wadi Ghadir, Sr represent considerable contamination, Mo represent moderate contamination, the others represent the low contamination. In Sharm ELFaqiri, Sr, Cu, Sc, V and Mo represent the moderate contamination, while the others represent the low contamination. In Wadi ELGemal, Sr and V represent considerable contamination, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sc, Y and Mo represent moderate contamination, Ba represent the low contamination. In Wadi Malek ELAud, Sr represent the high contamination, Ni, Cu and Mo represent the moderate contamination, while the others represent the low contamination. In Ras Banas,Sr represent the high contamination, Cu and Mo represent the moderate contamination, while the others represent the low contamination. The calculated CF’s were found in the following sequences: Sr > Mo > Cr > Ni > Cu > V > Sc > Zn >Y> Ba for all studied areas (sites). It was noticed that Sr is the major pollutant to cause relatively high pollution load while Y, Zn and Ba is the least metals to influence the pollution load. Pollution load index (PLI) was computed according to Tomlinson et al. (1980) from the following equation: PLI = (CF1 × CF2 × . . . . . . . . . . CFn) 1/n Where: PLI = pollution load index CF = contamination factor n = number of metals investigated The Pollution Load Index (PLI) (Table. 4 , Fig. 11) was calculated for the fifteen site in the study area under investigation, for the ten investigated metals (Ba, Sr, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sc, V, Y and Mo). The highest PLI was computed for Wadi Um Laseifa (1.94), followed by Wadi Samadi (1.75), followed by Wadi Um Tundoba, Wadi Mubarak and Wadi Igle (1.4, 1.34 and 1.15 respectively) while the lowest values were calculated for Ras Banas, Wadi Ghadir and Um Greifat. Thus the Wadi Um Laseifa is the most polluted area, while Ras Banas, Wadi Ghadir and Um Greifat are the least compared to other areas. Adverse biological effects: Increasing the values of many heavy metals may cause highly toxic and chronic effects on living organisms. Elevated concentrations of heavy metals in sediments could cause detrimental effects to benthic organisms as well as other aquatic organisms. In the present study, concentration of metals especially Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni are compared to the Effects-Range Low (ERL) and Effects-Range Median (ERM) concentration guidelines derived from the database of Long et al. (1995) to understand the extent of contamination (Table 5). Concentrations below the ERL value are rarely associated with biological effects while, those equal/or above the ERL, but below the ERM, indicate a possible range in which effects would occasionally occur. The concentrations equivalent to and above ERM values indicates that the effects would occur frequently. In the study area the Most of Cr concentration (Table. 3) in the study area below the ERL (81) of Long et al. (1995) except in three area (site) Wadi Samadai, Um Tundoba and Wadi Mubarak it range between ERL and ERM (370) (Table. 5) of Long et al. (1995). Ni concentration (Table. 3) is over the limited value of ERM (51.6) in Mersa Um Gheig, Wadi Laseifa, Wadi Mubarak and Wadi Samadai, and it between ERL and ERM in Wadi Malek ELAud, Um Tundoba, Wadi Igla and Wadi Areik, as well as it below the ERL (20.9) in Wadi Greifat, Wadi Waseat, Wadi Abu Dabbab, Wadi Ghadir, Sharm ELFaqiri, Wadi ELGemal and Ras Banas. Cu concentration (Table. 3) in all areas below the ERL (34) (Table. 5), except in Wadi ELGemal it range between ERL and ERM(270) (Long et al. 1995 ). Zn concentration (Table. 3) in all the study areas below the ERL (150) 5871 J. Appl. Sci. Res., 8(12): 5860-5876, 2012 (Table. 5). Neither the ERL nor the ERM predicts the likelihood that a particular concentration will or will not be found with a co-occurring effect ( Long et al. 1995) Table 3: Show the heavy metals concentration of the study area Sample No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Name Location Mersa um Gheig Wadi Um Laseifa Um Greifat Wadi um Areik Wadi Mubarak Wadi Waseat Wadi abu Dabaab 25o 34o 25o 34 o 25 o 34 o 25 o 34 o 25 o 34 o 25 o 34 o 25 o 34 o 25 o 34 o 25 o 34 o 24 o 34 o 24 o 34 o 24 o 35 o 24 o 35 o Wadi Igla Wadi Samadai Wadi Um Tundoba Wadi Ghadir Sharm elfaqiri Wadi ElGemal Wadi Malek El Oud Ras Banas Heavy Metal (ppm) Ba Sr Cr Ni Cu Zn Sc V Y Mo 79.8 2740 30.3 67.9 26.6 16.6 2.8 25 2.1 6 107 589 160 67.5 28.8 77.1 17.6 277 38.3 3 170 1880 12.5 0.00 10.5 22.2 1.9 18.5 6.9 16 120 2070 4.5 35.6 20.5 13.5 1.1 9.1 2 7 309 548 82.3 75.9 33.4 44.1 7.3 58.2 6.7 5 148 1640 20.6 16.3 21.5 12.3 2.7 21.5 1.4 4 120 2120 33 20.8 14.7 28.8 5.6 41.9 5.2 2 159 1450 49.4 40.6 24 57.5 7.1 55.2 9.2 2 149 897 250 103 33.6 58.1 10.3 192 11.5 2 150 2690 133 45.3 21 50.6 4.4 83.1 17.6 2 315 1360 7.7 0.00 10.4 10.3 1.1 0.6 0.00 2 136 688 23.4 11.9 20.3 32.1 7.1 53.2 7.3 2 117 1420 71.5 20.5 34.5 94.4 14.3 201 21.4 2 24 13 N 35 o 24\ E 91.6 2800 8.1 36.1 25.6 9.7 1.7 14.7 0.6 4 23 59\ N 35 40\ E 10.1 2310 0.00 0.00 14.9 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2 43\ N 33\ E 41\ N 27\ E 36\ N 36\ E 35\ N 36\ E 30\ N 39\ E 23\ N 42\ E 16\ N 46\ E 10\ N 50\ E 3\ N 54\ E 54\ N 58\ E 49\ N 59\ E 26\ N 12\ E 21\ N 17\ E o \ Table 4: showing the Pollution Loading Index (PLI) and Contamination Factors (CF) of theheavy metals Contamination Factor (CF) of the Heavy Metals Area PLI Ba Sr Cr Ni Cu Zn Sc V Y Mo Mersa um Gheig Wadi Um Laseifa Um Greifat 0.83 0.11 8.67 0.86 3.57 1.9 0.31 0.4 0.47 0.1 4.28 1.94 0.16 1.86 4.57 3.55 2.05 1.48 2.51 5.22 1.82 2.14 0.00 0.25 5.94 0.35 0.00 0.75 0.42 0.27 0.34 0.32 11.42 Wadi um Areik 0.50 0.17 6.55 0.12 1.87 1.46 0.25 0.15 0.17 0.09 5 Wadi Mubarak 1.34 0.46 1.73 2.35 3.99 2.38 0.84 1.04 1.09 0.31 3.57 Wadi Waseat Wadi abu Dabaab Wadi Igla 0.59 0.22 5.18 0.58 0.85 1.53 0.23 0.38 0.40 0.06 2.85 0.83 0.17 6.70 0.94 1.09 1.05 0.55 0.8 0.79 0.24 1.42 1.15 0.23 4.58 1.41 2.13 1.71 1.10 1.01 1.04 0.43 1.42 Wadi Samadai Wadi Um Tundoba Wadi Ghadir 1.75 0.22 2.83 7.14 5.42 2.4 1.11 1.47 3.62 0.54 1.42 1.4 0.22 8.51 3.8 2.38 1.5 0.97 0.62 1.56 0.83 1.42 0.00 0.47 4.30 0.22 0 0.742 0.19 0.15 0.01 0.00 1.42 Sharm elfaqiri 0.77 0.20 2.17 0.66 0.62 1.45 0.61 1.01 1.00 0.34 1.42 Wadi ElGemal Wadi Malek El Oud Ras Banas 1.56 0.17 4.49 2.04 1.07 2.46 1.81 2.04 3.79 1.01 1.42 0.5 0.13 8.86 0.23 1.9 1.82 0.18 0.24 0.27 0.02 2.85 0.00 0.01 7.31 0.00 0.00 1.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.42 5872 J. Appl. Sci. Res., 8(12): 5860-5876, 2012 Table 5: show the ERL and ERM of Long et al. (1995) Heavy Metal ERL (Effects Range-Low) CHROMIUM CR 81 COPPER CU 34 NICKEL NI 20.9 ZINC ZN 150 ERM (Effects Range-Median) 370 270 51.6 410 Contamination Factor (CF) in Mersa um Gheig Contamination Factor (CF) in Wadi Um Laseifa 10 10 5 5 0 0 Mo Y V Mo Y Sc Zn Cu Ni Cr Sr Ba Contamination Factor (CF) Um Greifat V Sc Zn Cu Ni Cr Sr Ba Contamination Factor (CF) in Wadi um Areik 10 15 10 5 0 5 0 Mo Y V Mo Y Sc Zn Cu Ni Cr Sr Ba V Sc Zn Cu Ni Cr Sr Ba Contamination Factor (FC) in Wadi Waseat Contamination Factor (CF) in Wadi Mubarak 6 6 4 2 0 4 2 0 Mo Y V Sc Zn Cu Ni Cr Sr Ba Mo Y V Sc Zn Cu Ni Cr Sr Ba Contamination Factor (CF) in Wadi Igla Contamination Factor (CF) in Wadi abu Dabaab 6 10 4 5 2 0 0 Mo Y V Sc Zn Cu Ni Cr Sr Ba Mo Y V Sc Zn Cu Ni Cr Sr Ba 5873 J. Appl. Sci. Res., 8(12): 5860-5876, 2012 Contamination Factor (CF) in Wadi Samadai Contamination Factor (CF) in Wadi Um Tundoba 10 10 5 5 0 0 Mo Y Mo Y V Sc Zn Cu Ni Cr Sr Ba V Sc Zn Cu Ni Cr Sr Ba Fig. 10: Showing the Contamination Factors (CF) of the study area Contamination Factor (CF) in Wadi Ghadir Contamination Factor (CF) Sharm elfaqiri 4 5 2 0 0 Mo Y V Sc Zn Cu Ni Cr Sr Ba Mo Y Contamination Factor (CF) in Wadi ElGemal Sc Zn Cu Ni Cr Sr Ba Contamination Factor (CF) in Wadi Malek El Oud 5 10 0 0 Mo Y V Mo Y V Sc Zn Cu Ni Cr Sr Ba V Sc Zn Cu Ni Cr Sr Ba Contamination Factor (CF) in Ras Banas 10 5 0 Mo Y V Sc Zn Cu Ni Cr Sr Ba Contamination Factor (CF) of the all sites in the study area Mo Y V Sc Zn Cu Ni Cr Sr Ba 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 5874 J. Appl. Sci. Res., 8(12): 5860-5876, 2012 Pollution load index (PLI) of the study area 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 1.94 1.75 1.34 0.83 0.5 0 0.599 0.833 1.15 1.56 1.4 0.779 0 0.5 0 Fig. 11: Showig the Cotamination Factors (CF) and Pollution Load Index (PLI) of the study area Conclusions: 1- The coastal plain is a low topographic feature of a variable width ranging between 1 km as in Wadi Samadai to more than 5 km as in Wadi Um Greifat 2- The beach in the study area range from sand to carbonate beach, where the carbonates fraction is strongly occurring in the Ras Banas, Wadi Areik and Wadi Waseat as well as in Abu Dabbab. The sand fraction strongly presented in Mersa Um Gheig, Wadi Laseifa, Wadi Ghadir, Wadi ELGemal and Sharm ELFaqiri. 3- The distribution of these sediment along the coastal area depend on the source rocks, the effect of physical marine processes as waves and currents along the coastal area as well as the local sedimentary conditions of each site in the study area. 4- The distribution of heavy minerals could be controlled by inland sources and probably related to settling conditions of particles and local sedimentological processes 5- The Opaques have highest values in Mersa Um Gheig, Wadi Ghadir,Wadi Um Tundoba, Wadi Malek ELOud, Wadi ELGemal and Wadi Um Laseifa where the source rocks of these areas are mainly magmatic and metamorphic rocks. Also Opaques may be high due to the winnowing action of waves at the beach and tidal flat zones and the highest effect of the landfilling (Dar,2002). 6- According to the density, the heavy minerals classified into two group, the first group consists of amphiboles, Epidotes, Staurolite, Muscovite and Chlorite (lower densities), while the second group is consists of rutile, garnet, zircon and opaques (higher densites). The first group heavy minerals (lower densities) are highly occurred in fine sand fraction while the second group heavy minerals (higher densites) are highly occurred in very fine fraction. 7- Abundance of Amphiboles Wadi Abu Dabbab, Wadi Waseat, Wadi Mubarak, Wadi Igla, Wadi Um Greifat and Wadi Um Areik due to the disintegrated Precambrian basic metavolcanic rocks or from sedimentary rocks near the study area. 8- The relatively high occurrence of ultrastable minerals (zircon, rutile, garnet) in Um Laseifa, Wadi ELGemal, Wadi Um Greifat and Wadi Areik derived from the near sedimentary succession along the study area. According to Dar, (1998) presence of high percentage of metastable minerals (Minerals may not be stable) dominates a continuous supply of fresh sediments from the Red Sea Mountains. 9- The contamination in the study area range from low to high contamination according to the calculated Contamination Factors of heavy metals. 10- The Pollution Load Index (PLI) showing that Wadi Um Laseifa is the most polluted area, while Ras Banas, Wadi Ghadir and Um Greifat are the least 11- Large sectors of the Egyptian coasts of the Red Sea have been developed into beach resorts. It is estimated that the Red Sea coast will attract more than one million tourists during the next years References Allman, M. and D.F. Lawrence, 1972. Geological Laboratory Techniques, Arco., New York Azab, M.A., 2009. Flood Hazard Between Marsa - Ras Banas,Red Sea, Egypt. Fourth Environmental Conference, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, pp: 17-35. Ben-Menahem, A., A. Nur, M. Vered, 1976. 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