Download Middle Ages Intro

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Middle Ages
David Wood
Western Civilization
Before We Begin
 I have removed the second exam/essay from this
 We are coming into the end of the historical period
and soon we will be talking about modern issues in
Western Civilization.
 This marks a HUGE change in the course, because we
will soon no longer be talking about ancient history,
and instead, we will be talking about issues that affect
our modern world on a daily basis.
Before We Begin
 Your one exam/essay in this class is to connect the
ancient world with the modern world in a manner of
your choosing.
 You can do this with an essay, a speech panel, or
some other project of your choosing.
 This is a GROUP project.
 You have to confirm with me your project choice.
 Answer one of THREE prompts (your choice):
 Why is the study of ancient civilization important to
understanding current Western Civilization?
 Globalization has integrated many Western ideas into the
world order. Is it important to understand ancient Western
civilization in order to understand modern day China or
the modern Eastern Civilization?
 Compare and contrast the origins of Western Civilization
with that of Chinese Civilization (or Eastern Civilization in
general). How did these civilizations differ in their origins
and outcomes?
 Must be at least 6 pages in length.
 Typed.
 Font: Times New Roman
 Double Spaced
 A speech panel works like this:
 All group members stand at the front of the classroom
and deliver their answers to the prompt, each member
emphasizing a different aspect.
 The rest of the class will then ask questions to the
individual members.
 Please confirm with me your ideas.
 A skit is probably not going to work unless it’s
absolutely fantastic…
 Maybe you want to make a video or make your own
PowerPoint presentation?
 Maybe you want to do a debate demonstration of
the essay prompts?
November 26/27
Please take a few minutes to find groups now, and discuss
the project with your classmates.
Afterwards, I’ll ask again if there are any questions.
The Middle Ages in Context
 Historians divide into 4 time frames:
Ancient World
Classical Era
Middle Ages
Modern Era
 Divisions help historian understand how Western
Civilization developed in stages
 Ancient World
 Development of civilization
 Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persians,
 Classical World
 Greeks, Romans.
 Fall of Rome is the end of the Classical World
Middle Ages (500-1500 CE)
AKA Medieval Period
 Latin: Medium (middle) Aeveum (ages)
 1000 year time period.
 After the Fall of Rome and before the Modern World.
 Many changes come to Europe during these centuries
 Christianity is biggest thing all Europeans have in
common during this time
 Divisions
Early Middle 500-1000 CE
High Middle 1000-1300 CE
Late Middle 1300-1500 CE
Western Europe Summary
 Middle Ages-postclassical period in western Europe
 Middle ages stretch between the fall of Roman empire
and the 15th century
 Civ spreads gradually beyond the Mediterranean zone
 Christian missionaries converted Europeans
 Medieval Europe participated in the emerging
international community
 New tools and crops expanded agricultural output
 Advanced technologies improved manufacturing
 Math, science and philosophy were stimulated by new
Middle Ages as a Carrier for Western
 Used Latin as a common language
 Manorialism originated on the farming estates of the ancient world
 Christianity is adopted widely
 Development of local and regional political focus
 Economically, credit was used, banking, accounting procedures, the
creation of a wealthy class and the end of slavery
 The creation of vernacular literary forms and Gothic architecture
Western Civilization against the Rival
Islamic Empires
 Medieval west was flourishing while the Islamic core was fragmenting
 Understand for this class that these two civilizations were frequently
“at each others’ throats.”
 Nonetheless, they were similar in many regards, though we do not
consider the Islamic Empires as carriers for Western Civilization.
“Western Civilization” Goes
 Center of Western Civilization moves more and more
towards the West
 Ancient World-Center is in Near East (middle east):
Egypt, Mesopotamia, Syria, Persia
 Classical Era-Center is the Mediterranean: Greece,
then Rome
 Middle Ages-Center is Northern and Central Europe
The Big Picture
 The world of Europe in 500 CE was a VERY different
place than the Europe of 1500 CE.
 End of Middle Ages: Great kings rule over powerful
states such as France and England
 The Middle Ages helped to create the modern
Western World
Rome: A Review
 Expanded and took over all of
Europe, North Africa, and some
of the Middle East
 Peaceful
 Christianity is adopted by
Rome (Constantine)
 Edict of Milan: Official
tolerance of Christianity
 Theodosius the Great (378-395)
adopted Christianity as official
religion of Roman Empire
The Roman Empire
 286-476
Decline of the Roman
 The decline of the Roman Empire refers to both the
gradual disintegration of the economy of Rome and
the barbarian invasions that were its final doom.
 This slow decline occurred over an estimated period
of 320 years which many historians believe finally
culminated in 476AD when Romulus Augustus, the last
Emperor of the Western Roman Empire was deposed
by Odoacer, a Germanic chieftain.
 Many scholars maintain that rather than a "fall", the
changes can more accurately be described as a
complex transformation. Over time many theories
have been proposed on why the Empire fell, or
whether indeed it fell at all.
Blue=Roman Empire
Red=Byzantine Empire
End of the Roman Empire…Middle Ages
 The decline of the Roman Empire is one of the events
traditionally marking the end of Classical Antiquity and
the beginning of the European Middle Ages.
 The Western Roman Empire - not the Eastern Empire fell because the West, including Italy and the city of
Rome itself, had been demoted to the periphery. The
East had been promoted to the core of the Empire. This
occurred on May 11, 330, with the transfer of the capital
of the Roman Empire from Rome to Constantinople, by
Constantine I.
 This happened because Greek-speaking Christians after decades of persecution - took over the Roman
Europe declined during the
early Middle Ages, for
several reasons.
 The unifying force of the Roman empire was gone.
 The region was invaded repeatedly.
 Trade and classical learning decreased.
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages are so called as the middle
period BETWEEN the decline of the Roman
Empire and the Renaissance.
The early Middle Ages are often referred to as
the Dark Ages or Medieval era.
Middle Ages Overview
 Middle Ages was the middle period in a division of
European history into three 'ages': Classical civilization,
the Middle Ages, and Modern Civilization.
 It is commonly considered as having lasted from the
end of the Western Roman Empire (5th century) until
 *the rise of national monarchies,
 *the beginnings of demographic and economic renewal
after the Black Death,
 *European overseas exploration , AND
 *the cultural revival known as the Renaissance around
the 15th century
Important Points
Rise of the Catholic Church
Monasteries, Missionaries
Feudalism and the Feudal contract
Charlemagne, Holy Roman Empire
Knights, Lords, Manor, Vassals, Chivalry
The Great Schism
Norman Conquest
Magna Carta
Pope (Domination of the Catholic Church)
100 Years War/Joan of Arc
The Black Death/Bubonic Plague
The Inquisition (heresy)
Middle Ages 476 A.D. – 1453
 Loss of literacy and science
 No large empires.
 Large gap between rich and poor.
 Christian church has the power in Europe.
 IN MIDDLE EAST: Islam begins and grows.
 **Clash between two monotheistic religions**
How did Germanic tribes
divide Western Europe into
small kingdoms?
 When the unifying force of the Roman empire
disappeared from Western Europe, Germanic
kingdoms replaced it.
 Greco-Roman, Germanic, and Christian traditions
blended during the Middle Ages.
The Early Middle Ages (450900)
 First part of Middle Ages = western Europe had many
problems and considered backwards
 Italy was struggling after the fall of Rome and Spain was
ruled by Muslims
 Eventually, western Europe would recover and advance
rapidly, but that wasn’t until the later part of the Middle
Ages (after 900 C.E.)
 Early Middle Ages = Western Europe Weak
 Western Europe often invaded, making it hard to advance
 Vikings = Scandinavian raiders, invaded Europe between
700s and 1000s
 For the most part, only the clergy and people in
monasteries were literate, and they helped to preserve
classic learning
Manor System
Manorialism =
economic and
political system b/t
landlords and their
Manor System
(Feudalism) increased
due to a lack of trade
during early part of the
Middle Ages
Getting Back to the Feudal
 Began by 500s
 Originally very local (lords had
5-10 vassals) but could span
over large areas or kingdoms
(such as Charlemagne’s Holy
Roman Empire)
 Feudalism hurt development of
strong monarchies (feudal
lords had power) but it
reduced local warfare
 Kings used feudalism to build
power (France started as
A Serf’s Life
 Serfs = most peasants, who were farmers, lived on selfsufficient estates called manors, got protection from
lord (noble) in return for part of their good
The Church
After the fall of Rome, the
church was the only
strong form of
(governments weak)
Pope sponsored missions
(converted England,
Germany, parts of
eastern Europe) to
 Later Carolingian ruler who established empire in
France and Germany around 800, called Holy Roman
 Looked like glory of Rome would be revived, but never
 After Charlemagne’s death in 814, empire split into 3
sections (France, Germany, Low Countries) so each of
his sons could have one
 Western Europe became series of regional monarchies
with weak kings (aristocracy powerful)
 Most powerful of these regional monarchies in
Germany and northern Italy
Europe Divided
Culturally western
No single language in
Europe was united
western Europe (Latin
through Catholicism,
was language of
but politically it was
church, but spoken
very divided
language was French,
English, etc)
Things Turn Around Year 900
Agricultural Innovations such
as the
moldboard plow, three-field
system, horse collar, and
Viking raids began stopping
in the 900s
This led to population growth,
which led to economic
innovation and the growth of
cities and towns
Economic Growth
 More people meant more markets, trade grew
 Feudal system weakened as towns grew (demand for
peasant labor increased and landlords needed to
entice them by giving them more freedom (now
charged rent)
 Harsh serfdom still existed, but serfs gaining more
 A commercial, market-based economy began to exist
in western Europe
Growth of Towns and Cities
 Towns and cities grew rapidly especially in Italy
 Literacy spread in urban centers, as did use of
vernacular (spoken) languages, like French and
 Merchant activity and craft production grew
 Asia still had more in cities than western Europe, but
they were growing in western Europe
Universities Grow
 Church based schools formed in 800s
 By 1000s, first universities created – they trained middle
class in the cities in theology, medicine, and law
 By 1100s, modern universities emerge throughout
western Europe (such as Oxford and Cambridge in
Feudal Monarchies
 Growth of feudal monarchies similar to China – both
extensive bureaucracies
 To extend power, feudal monarchies hired professional
armies, and hired businessmen to run bureaucracies
Limited Government
 Strong monarchies didn’t develop across Europe, as
regional states and feudal lords still had much power
 Ex: Magna Carta and King John (1215) – forced to give
up power (couldn’t add new taxes w/out parliament’s
 Parliament = legislative body representing 3 privileged
estates (church, nobles, urban leaders) not
Hundred Years’ War (13371453)
 War fought between France and England
 Led to decline of feudal system (monarchs) saw that
feudal militaries (which did most of fighting) weren’t
too effective, and a paid was army better
 Since noble’s military power no longer needed, feudal
system began fading away
Western Europeans Crave
 As the economy of western Europe began to grow, a
period of expansionism occurred
 Reasons for expansion:
 Population was growing
 Desire to spread Christianity
 Germans expanded east, Christians eventually drove
Muslims out of Spain, Vikings got to what is today
The Crusades
 The Crusades were the biggest expansionist
 Urban II – Pope who ordered 1st Crusade
 Lasting impact of Crusades was West being exposed
to Middle Eastern culture
Religious Reform
 Church officials often caught up in politics, hurting
 Began Western idea of separation of church and state
 Reform movements began to remove this secularism
from the church and rid church of interference of
feudal lords
 Investiture – practice of government appointing
bishops, initially dissolving the separation of “Church
and State.” This practice ended with King Gregory VII,
rectifying the wall between Church and State once
Height of Medieval
 Merchant activity was growing and the feudal system
was slowly dying out
 Medieval Western civilization reached its peak in the
1100s and the 1200s
Byzantine Empire
 How did the Byzantine Empire contribute to
The Eastern Empire
 As Western Europe succumbed
to the Germanic invasions,
imperial power shifted to the
Byzantine Empire (the eastern
part of the Roman Empire).
 Constantinople became the
sole capitol of the empire
and remained so until the
successful revival of the
western empire in the 8th
century by Charlemagne.
The Reign of Justinian
 The height of the first period of Byzantine history
(324-632) was the reign of Emperor Justinian (r. 537565) and his wife Empress Theodora (d. 548)
The Imperial Goal: Unity
 The imperial goal in the East
was to centralize
government and impose
legal and doctrinal
One God
One Empire
One Religion
1st Method: Law
 Justinian collated and revised Roman law.
His Corpus Juris Civilis (body of civil law)
had little effect on medieval common law.
However, beginning with the Renaissance,
it provided the foundation for most
European law down to the 19th century.
2nd Method: Religion
 Religion as well as law served
imperial centralization. In 380,
Christianity had been proclaimed
the official religion of the eastern
empire. Now all other religions
were considered “demented and
Increase in Church Wealth
 Between the 4th and 6th centuries,
the patriarchs of Constantinople,
Alexandria, Antioch, and
Jerusalem acquired enormous
wealth in the form of land and
Increase in Clergy
 The prestige and comfort
that the clergy enjoyed
swelled the ranks of the
clergy in the Eastern Church.
Independent Thinking
 Ideas thought to be heresies by the Roman Catholic Church received
imperial support:
 Arianism denied that Father and
Son were equal and coeternal.
 Monophysitism taught that Jesus
had only one nature, a composite
divine-human one.
 Iconoclasm forbid the use of
images (icons) because it led to
3rd Method: Strong Cities
 During Justinian’s
reign, the empire’s
strength was its
more than 1,500
cities. The largest
with 350,000
inhabitants, was
Constantinople, the
cultural crossroads
of Asian and
Loyal Governors and Bishops
 Between the 4th and
5th centuries, councils
were made up of
local wealthy
landowners, who
were not necessarily
loyal to the emperor.
By the 6th century,
special governors and
bishops replaced the
councils and proved
to be more loyal to
the emperor.
The Empire at Its Height
The empire was at its height In 565, during Justinian’s reign. It
included most of the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea.
Decline in the 7th Century
 In the seventh century the
empire lost Syria, the Holy
Land, Egypt, and North
Africa to invading Islamic
The Iconoclastic Controversy
 The Iconoclastic
a movement that denied
the holiness of religious
images, devastated much
of the empire
for over a hundred years.
 During the eighth and early
ninth centuries the use of
such images was
prohibited, but icons were
restored by 843.
Recovery of Territory
 The Byzantines called
upon the European
states to push back the
Muslim conquerors. The
European states
complied, successfully
pushed back the Seljuks,
returned territory to the
Byzantines, and carved
out kingdoms of their
own in Syria and
The Fall of Constantinople
 in 1204, the Crusaders
attacked, conquered, and
pillaged the city of
Constantinople, a goal that the
Muslims had been trying
achieve for centuries
Conquered by the Ottoman Turks
 In 1453, the city was
finally and
conquered by the
Ottoman Turks and
renamed Istanbul.
Byzantine culture,
law, and
came to its final
Contribution to Western
 Throughout the early Middle Ages, the Byzantine Empire remained a
protective barrier between Western Europe and hostile Persian, Arab,
and Turkish armies.
 The Byzantines were also a major conduit of classical learning and
science into the West down to the Renaissance. While western
Europeans were fumbling to create a culture of their own, the cities of
the Byzantine Empire provided them a model of a civilized society.
 Renaissance marks
“modern” civilization
 Rebirth of classical
ideas (back to
BEFORE Middle Ages)
 Renaissance that
began in Italy (citystates of Venice,
Milan, Florence) and
spread to the rest of
 The historical
development of early
civilization and the
Middles Ages LED to
the Renaissance…