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Transcript
Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 6e
Chapter 25 – Electric Potential
In the figure below, two points A and B are located
within a region in which there is an electric field. The
potential difference ΔV = VB – VA is
1
1.
positive
2.
negative
3.
zero
2
3
4
5
33%
1
33%
2
33%
3
When moving straight from A to B, E
and ds in Equation 25.3 both point
toward the right. Thus, the dot product
E · ds is positive and ΔV is negative.
In this figure, a negative charge is placed at A and
then moved to B. The change in potential energy of
the charge–field system for this process is
1
1.
positive
2.
negative
3.
zero
2
3
4
5
33%
1
33%
2
33%
3
From Equation 25.3, ΔU = q0 ΔV, so if a
negative test charge is moved through a
negative potential difference, the potential
energy is positive. Work must be done to
move the charge in the direction opposite
to the electric force on it.
The labeled points of the figure below are on a series of
equipotential surfaces associated with an electric field. Rank
(from greatest to least) the work done by the electric field on a
positively charged particle that moves along the following
transitions.
1
1.
A -> B, B -> C, C -> D, D -> E
2.
A -> B, D -> E, B -> C, C -> D
3.
B -> C, C -> D, A -> B, D -> E
4.
D -> E, C -> D, B -> C, A -> B
2
3
4
5
25% 25% 25% 25%
1
2
3
4
Moving from B to C decreases the electric
potential by 2 V, so the electric field performs
2 J of work on each coulomb of positive
charge that moves. Moving from C to D
decreases the electric potential by 1 V, so 1 J
of work is done by the field. It takes no work
to move the charge from A to B because the
electric potential does not change. Moving
from D to E increases the electric potential by
1 V, and thus the field does –1 J of work per
unit of positive charge that moves.
For the equipotential surfaces in this figure, what
is the approximate direction of the electric field?
1
1.
Out of the page
2.
Into the page
3.
Toward the right edge
of the page
4.
Toward the left edge of
the page
5.
Toward the top of the
page
6.
Toward the bottom of
the page
2
3
4
5
17% 17% 17% 17% 17% 17%
1
2
3
4
5
6
The electric field points in the direction of
decreasing electric potential.
A spherical balloon contains a positively charged
object at its center. As the balloon is inflated to a
greater volume while the charged object remains at
the center, the electric potential at the surface of the
balloon will
1
1.
increase
2.
decrease
3.
remain the same.
2
3
4
5
33%
1
33%
2
33%
3
The electric potential is inversely
proportional to the radius (see Eq.
25.11).
Recall that the spherical balloon from the last question
contains a positively charged object at its center. As
the balloon is inflated to a greater volume while the
charged object remains at the center, the electric flux
through the surface of the balloon will
1
1.
increase
2.
decrease
3.
remain the same.
2
3
4
5
33%
1
33%
2
33%
3
Because the same number of field lines
passes through a closed surface of any
shape or size, the electric flux through
the surface remains constant.
In Figure 25.10a, take q1 to be a negative source
charge and q2 to be the test charge. If q2 is initially
positive and is changed to a charge of the same
magnitude but negative, the potential at the position
of q2 due to q1
1
1.
increases
2.
decreases
3.
remains the same
2
3
4
5
33%
1
33%
2
33%
3
The potential is established only by the
source charge and is independent of the
test charge.
Consider the situation from the last question again.
When q2 is changed from positive to negative, the
potential energy of the two-charge system
1
1.
increases
2.
decreases
3.
remains the same
2
3
4
5
33%
1
33%
2
33%
3
The potential energy of the two-charge system
is initially negative, due to the products of
When the sign of q2 is changed, both charges
are negative, and the potential energy of the
system is positive.
In a certain region of space, the electric potential is
zero everywhere along the x axis. From this we can
conclude that the x component of the electric field in
this region is
1
1.
zero
2.
in the x direction
3.
in the –x direction.
2
3
4
5
33%
1
33%
2
33%
3
If the potential is constant (zero in this
case), its derivative along this direction
is zero.
In a certain region of space, the electric field is zero.
From this we can conclude that the electric potential
in this region is
1
1.
zero
2.
constant
3.
positive
4.
negative
2
3
4
5
25% 25% 25% 25%
1
2
3
4
If the electric field is zero, there is no change in
the electric potential and it must be constant.
This constant value could be zero but does not
have to be zero.
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