UNIVERSITAT POLITÈCNICA DE CATALUNYA Tesi Doctoral

... or an octahedron. It is the aim of this section to prove the predicted error in PeCMFlE(unxRWG,RWG) when compared with PeC-MFlE(RWG,unxRWG). Note than on a physical polyhedron the dissimilarity between the results of both operators must come from the physical edges, since it is the only part of the ...

... or an octahedron. It is the aim of this section to prove the predicted error in PeCMFlE(unxRWG,RWG) when compared with PeC-MFlE(RWG,unxRWG). Note than on a physical polyhedron the dissimilarity between the results of both operators must come from the physical edges, since it is the only part of the ...

The Raman Effect

... A14.1 Introduction A14.2 The Polarizability Tensor in the Cartesian Basis A14.2.1 General considerations A14.2.2 Reduction of the tensor A14.2.3 The polarizability ellipsoid A14.2.4 Transformation of c a under rotation of axes A14.3 The Polarizability Tensor in the Spherical Basis A14.3.1 General de ...

... A14.1 Introduction A14.2 The Polarizability Tensor in the Cartesian Basis A14.2.1 General considerations A14.2.2 Reduction of the tensor A14.2.3 The polarizability ellipsoid A14.2.4 Transformation of c a under rotation of axes A14.3 The Polarizability Tensor in the Spherical Basis A14.3.1 General de ...

Lecture Notes 18: Relativistic Electrodynamics

... RELATIVISTIC ELECTRODYNAMICS Classical electrodynamics (Maxwell’s equations, the Lorentz force law, etc.) {unlike classical / Newtonian mechanics} is already consistent with special relativity – i.e. is valid in any IRF. However: What one observer interprets (e.g.) as a purely electrical process in ...

... RELATIVISTIC ELECTRODYNAMICS Classical electrodynamics (Maxwell’s equations, the Lorentz force law, etc.) {unlike classical / Newtonian mechanics} is already consistent with special relativity – i.e. is valid in any IRF. However: What one observer interprets (e.g.) as a purely electrical process in ...

The Tutorial as PDF.

... 10.2 Screenshot of the desktop when we switched off the plotting of the materialboundaries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3 Screenshot of the desktop when we switched on the plotting of the materialboundaries, but selected bbzhigh=0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...

... 10.2 Screenshot of the desktop when we switched off the plotting of the materialboundaries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3 Screenshot of the desktop when we switched on the plotting of the materialboundaries, but selected bbzhigh=0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...

Structure and Dynamics of the Magnetopause and Its Boundary Layers Hiroshi Hasegawa

... distinct natures which are ubiquitous in our universe. This contrasts with the magnetotail current layer which is sandwiched between more-or-less similar, relatively stable plasmas of the tail lobes. It should also be stressed that the magnetopause is a unique region in space, where collision-less p ...

... distinct natures which are ubiquitous in our universe. This contrasts with the magnetotail current layer which is sandwiched between more-or-less similar, relatively stable plasmas of the tail lobes. It should also be stressed that the magnetopause is a unique region in space, where collision-less p ...

as a PDF

... 2.1.1 General mechanisms for superconductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.2 Bio-structures as defect regions or large ~ regions of quantum critical superconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.3 Superconductivity at magnetic f ...

... 2.1.1 General mechanisms for superconductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.2 Bio-structures as defect regions or large ~ regions of quantum critical superconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.3 Superconductivity at magnetic f ...

EHC 238 - World Health Organization

... frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference ...

... frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference ...

Lecture Notes 11: Potentials and Fields, Potential Formulation, Gauge Transformations, Jefimenko's Equations, Feynman-Heaviside Eqns for Moving Point Charge

... where r observer’s position at field point P r and r source position at point S r }. We seek time-dependent generalizations of Coulomb’s law and the Biot-Savart law. This is not an easy problem!! The approach we will take is to represent the time-dependent ...

... where r observer’s position at field point P r and r source position at point S r }. We seek time-dependent generalizations of Coulomb’s law and the Biot-Savart law. This is not an easy problem!! The approach we will take is to represent the time-dependent ...

Bioelectromagnetism

... weak biomagnetic fields induced by bioelectric currents. The latest advances in the measurement of electric currents flowing through a single ion channel of the cell membrane with the patch clamp have opened up completely new applications for bioelectromagnetism. With the patch clamp, bioelectromagn ...

... weak biomagnetic fields induced by bioelectric currents. The latest advances in the measurement of electric currents flowing through a single ion channel of the cell membrane with the patch clamp have opened up completely new applications for bioelectromagnetism. With the patch clamp, bioelectromagn ...

The Role of Magnetic Helicity in the Structure and Heating of the

... for me to test my technique. This proved invaluable in debugging multiple codes, and also taught me always to think about what I expect the answer to look like, and to investigate any discrepancies between my expectations and the outcome. Rick was also absolutely fantastic at carefully reading my wr ...

... for me to test my technique. This proved invaluable in debugging multiple codes, and also taught me always to think about what I expect the answer to look like, and to investigate any discrepancies between my expectations and the outcome. Rick was also absolutely fantastic at carefully reading my wr ...

Fast Frequency and Time Domain Integral Equation Modelling for Marine CSEM Applications

... The study of wave scattering at low frequencies was pioneered by Rayleigh (1871), however the earliest development work on seafloor controlled-source systems appears to be due to Drysdale (1924), who described an extensive program to measure the magnetic field and electric current around a submarine ...

... The study of wave scattering at low frequencies was pioneered by Rayleigh (1871), however the earliest development work on seafloor controlled-source systems appears to be due to Drysdale (1924), who described an extensive program to measure the magnetic field and electric current around a submarine ...

Elmer Models Manual

... copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/. Elmer program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) an ...

... copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/. Elmer program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) an ...

Production and evolution of axion dark matter in the early universe

... when it was proposed. In the original model, the axion was “visible” in the sense that it gives some predictions for laboratory experiments. Unfortunately, no signature was observed, and the prototype axion model was ruled out soon after the proposal [15]. However, it was argued that models with hig ...

... when it was proposed. In the original model, the axion was “visible” in the sense that it gives some predictions for laboratory experiments. Unfortunately, no signature was observed, and the prototype axion model was ruled out soon after the proposal [15]. However, it was argued that models with hig ...

Space Charge Accumulation in Polymeric High Voltage DC Cable

... ends of the cable circuit, to grade the electric field and to connect the cable to the power line. Joints are required when the cable becomes too long to be produced in one length. Traditionally, HVDC cable systems have been used only when alternate current (AC) technology could not be applied. The ...

... ends of the cable circuit, to grade the electric field and to connect the cable to the power line. Joints are required when the cable becomes too long to be produced in one length. Traditionally, HVDC cable systems have been used only when alternate current (AC) technology could not be applied. The ...

# Field (physics)

In physics, a field is a physical quantity that has a value for each point in space and time. For example, on a weather map, the surface wind velocity is described by assigning a vector to each point on a map. Each vector represents the speed and direction of the movement of air at that point. As another example, an electric field can be thought of as a ""condition in space"" emanating from an electric charge and extending throughout the whole of space. When a test electric charge is placed in this electric field, the particle accelerates due to a force. Physicists have found the notion of a field to be of such practical utility for the analysis of forces that they have come to think of a force as due to a field.In the modern framework of the quantum theory of fields, even without referring to a test particle, a field occupies space, contains energy, and its presence eliminates a true vacuum. This lead physicists to consider electromagnetic fields to be a physical entity, making the field concept a supporting paradigm of the edifice of modern physics. ""The fact that the electromagnetic field can possess momentum and energy makes it very real... a particle makes a field, and a field acts on another particle, and the field has such familiar properties as energy content and momentum, just as particles can have"". In practice, the strength of most fields has been found to diminish with distance to the point of being undetectable. For instance the strength of many relevant classical fields, such as the gravitational field in Newton's theory of gravity or the electrostatic field in classical electromagnetism, is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source (i.e. they follow the Gauss's law). One consequence is that the Earth's gravitational field quickly becomes undetectable on cosmic scales.A field can be classified as a scalar field, a vector field, a spinor field or a tensor field according to whether the represented physical quantity is a scalar, a vector, a spinor or a tensor, respectively. A field has a unique tensorial character in every point where it is defined: i.e. a field cannot be a scalar field somewhere and a vector field somewhere else. For example, the Newtonian gravitational field is a vector field: specifying its value at a point in spacetime requires three numbers, the components of the gravitational field vector at that point. Moreover, within each category (scalar, vector, tensor), a field can be either a classical field or a quantum field, depending on whether it is characterized by numbers or quantum operators respectively. In fact in this theory an equivalent representation of field is a field particle, namely a boson.