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The Lasting Contributions of Rome Standard 7.1 Architecture • Public Works were structures built by the government for the use of the public. They built public baths, temples, bridges, forums, and marketplaces • The three most important innovations were the arch, cement, and the baked brick Engineering • The Romans invented cement, which was stronger than stone and designed huge arches and domes with it. • They also used concrete to build more than 50,000 miles of roads. This helped unify the empire. • Aqueducts carried water from the countryside to the city. Water Supplies • Public fountains supplied clean water to citizens. • Sewer systems carried away wastewater. • Public baths were available for all to enjoy. Art • Romans created masterpieces of art in sculpture, painting, pottery, and mosaics. • Frescos were painted on walls throughout the cities. • The arts were greatly influenced by the Greeks. Roman Law and Citizenship • In 451 B.C., the leaders of the Roman Republic wrote the Twelve Tables. This code of laws dealt with daily Roman life. • Citizenship gave people the right to participate in government and gave them equal rights under the law. The Twelve Tables • Table IV: A dreadfully deformed child shall be quickly killed. • Table V: Females should remain in guardianship even when they have attained their majority. • Table XI: Marriages should not take place between plebeians and patricians. Influence of Roman Law • The United States and many European and Latin nations have been influenced by Roman law. • Principles of the Roman Republic, such as equal justice under the law, are still important. The Legacy of Language • The Romance languages (Spanish, Italian, French…) are based on Latin, the language of the Romans. • Our alphabet is based on the Roman alphabet. The Christian Religion • Christianity, based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, urged followers to love God and one another. • Though Jesus was executed under Roman rule, his message was carried throughout the empire by his followers. • Early on, Christians were persecuted, but in the 300’s A.D., Emperor Constantine made it the official religion of the Empire. • Today, Christianity is the largest religion in the world.