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FIGHTING THE CIVIL WAR Hundreds of military officers resigned from the U.S. army to fight for the South. Robert E. Lee had been offered a command of Union troops, but turned it down to fight with Virginia. CSA General Robert E. Lee 7 out of 8 military colleges were in the South. Strong military history and tradition would favor the Confederacy. Many southern soldiers were already trained to shoot and ride horses, and would be defending their own lands. ¾ of the Navy’s officers were from the North. North’s population in 1860 was 22 million, the South’s was 9 million. 90% of the nation’s factories were in the North. The South had ½ as many miles of railroad track as the North. The North controlled the national treasury and continued to gain revenue from tariffs (taxes on trade). Legal Tender Act – created a national currency and allowed the federal government to issue paper money for the first time – known as greenbacks. Issued to finance war without raising taxes. The paper money depreciated in terms of gold and became the subject of controversy. The South had smaller banks and most planters were in debt. They could raise money from trade, but the Union Navy blockaded southern ports. South resorted to taxing its citizens, but many refused to pay. They printed Confederate money, but this caused high inflation and the money became worthless. Lincoln had to deal with political disagreement within his own party and the North. Lincoln’s goal to preserve the union, even if he had to leave slavery alone, did not satisfy abolitionists. 16th President Abraham Lincoln War Democrats – supported the war to preserve the Union, but opposed ending slavery. Peace Democrats became known as Copperheads because Republicans viewed them as traitors. They opposed the war and wanted to restore the union through negotiations. Democrats and Republicans disagreed over conscription – the draft. Riots erupted in northern cities. Criticism over Lincoln’s suspension of writs of habeas corpus – the right to be charged with a crime or be released. The South tried to gain support from Britain and France. Both countries utilized southern cotton for their textile factories. Confederate diplomats aboard the British ship Trent were taken into custody by Union navy and held for several weeks. This incident, which led to discussion of war between the U.S. and Britain, became known as the “Trent Affair”. The Civil War was the first modern war – armies had traditionally fought in long lines, facing each other at close range. New weapons that were more accurate at greater distances changed the way armies fought. Armies were using trenches and barricades for protection. Combination of better weapons and new strategies led to mass casualties and the need for many soldiers. Jefferson Davis viewed the South’s cause as being similar to the war for independence. The South was fighting a defensive war and believed that one dynamic victory could determine the war. Many believed that military traditions, hunting and rural life made southerners better fighters. CSA President Jefferson Davis Anaconda Plan – proposed by Winfield Scott to slowly strangle the South. The Union would blockade Confederate ports and send gunboats down the Mississippi River to divide the Confederacy. Eventually, a war to destroy the South’s armies was the only way to win.