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Chapter 2
Nile River Valley Civilization
Egypt, Nile River Valley Civilization
• Nile River played a key role
• Yearly flood deposited rich silt for farming
• Egyptians learned how to harness the flood
to help instead of harm them (dikes,
reservoirs, irrigation ditches)
Contrast between the desert and the Nile Valley
Aswan High Dam
Menes unites Egypt
• 3100 B.C. the king of Upper
Egypt united Upper and
Lower Egypt
• He and his successors used
the Nile as a highway linking
north and south.
• The Nile helped make Egypt
the world’s first unified state
• Created a dynasty, or family
of rulers
3 Periods
of Ancient Egyptian
Old Kingdom
2700-2200 B.C.
Middle Kingdom
2050-1800 B.C.
New Kingdom
1550-1100 B.C.
Hyksos driven out
Development Of Noble
Pyramids Built
Power struggles
Hyksos invade with
war chariots
Empire reaches the
Euphrates River
Powerful pharaohs
The Pyramids
Pyramid facts
Built during the Old Kingdom
Were tombs for the pharaohs
Took a pharaohs entire reign to build
Made by hand of limestone blocks, some
weighing 2 tons or more
King Tut’s chariot
• The Ancient Egyptians viewed them as
• They usually wore wigs and a false beard to
signify their authority
Queen Hatshepsut, one of the
most prolific builders of the
Middle Kingdom
Bust of Nefertiti
The death mask of Egyptian pharaoh
Tutankhamen is made of gold inlaid with
colored glass and semiprecious stone. The
mask comes from the innermost mummy
case in the pharaoh’s tomb, and stands 54
cm (21 in) high. The emblems on the
forehead (vulture and cobra) and on the
shoulders (falcon heads) were symbols of the
Two Lands of Upper and Lower Egypt and of
divine authority.
• 12 month calendar, 30 days each (5 extra
days for feasting)
• Number system based on 10
• Used fractions & whole numbers
• Geometry
• More than 600 signs, pictures, or symbols
to represent words or sounds
• Wrote on papyrus
Rosetta Stone
• Key to understanding hieroglyphics
• Found by a French soldier in 1798
• Greek, hieroglyphics, and demotic
A painted box from Tutankhamun's tomb depicts the Pharaoh on a chariot chasing Nubians.
• Many gods, often with animal symbols
• Amon-Re, the creator, identified with the
• Osiris judged people after death, associated
with the Nile
• Strong belief in the afterlife
• Another Nile Kingdom (also known as
• Neighbor of Egypt to the South
• Traded or fought with Egypt for centuries.
• For a time, added Egypt to their empire
around 730 B.C.
Gifts for the King from Nubia, which was to the south of Egypt.
Can you find gold rings, a baby leopard, a monkey , an ebony log?