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Ancient Egypt Chapter 2 Sec2on 2 Geography •  Yearly flooding of the Nile River leaves silt deposits on the soil –  Soil becomes rich •  Peasants grow wheat and barley and use irriga/on ditches from the Nile during dry fall and winter months. –  Worshipped the Nile as a god. Irriga2on Ditches Environmental Challenges •  People staved if the flood waters were to low. •  Houses and crops were destroyed with high floods. •  Deserts surrounding the Nile prevented travel and contact with other groups of people. Uni2ng Upper and Lower Egypt •  Narmer united Upper and Lower Egypt into one kingdom. –  Symbolized by combing the Upper and Lower crowns of Egypt together. •  Moved capital to Memphis – where the Upper and Lower kingdoms met. –  Started first dynasty. Role of the Pharaohs •  Pharaohs -­‐ were the rulers of Egypt who were also believed to be gods. –  Pharaoh was responsible for the rise of the sun. •  Ruled a theocracy – government ruled by religious leaders. Pyramids •  Pharaohs ruled for eternity. –  ANer death, the Pharaoh's ka – spirit – con2nued to rule. •  Built pyramids -­‐ tombs for the pharaohs to meet their needs and pleasures in the aAerlife. Great Pyramids Great Pyramid Culture •  Egyp2ans were polytheis2c – believed in more than one god. •  Most important gods were Re – the sun god and Osiris – the god of the dead. •  The bodies of royal and elite Egyp2ans were preserved by mummifica2on. Social Classes •  Top -­‐ King, Queen, and royal family •  Upper Class – wealthy landowners, government officials, priests, and army commanders. •  Middle Class – merchants and ar2sans. •  Lower Class – peasant farmers, laborers, and slaves. –  People could move up to the next social class if through educa2on and skill. Wri2ng •  Hieroglyphics – system of wri2ng in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds. •  Wrote on a paperlike material made from papyrus reeds. Hieroglyphics Science and Technology •  Developed a 365 day calendar to keep track of 2me between floods and seasons. •  Developed a system of numbers for coun2ng, adding, and subtrac2ng. –  Used geometry to build pyramids and other buildings. •  Advanced medical knowledge.