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Transcript
Egyptian Civilization:
“The Gift of the Nile”
Chapter 3
•Dynasty
•Pharaoh
•Bureaucracy
•Vizier
•Mummification
•Hieroglyphics
•Hieratic script
The Impact of Geography
• The Nile Delta is called
Lower Egypt
• The land upstream, to
the south, is called Upper
Egypt
• Egypt’s important cities
developed at the tip of
the delta, the point at
which the Nile divides
into two major branches
forming the delta
The Impact of Geography
• The most important
•
•
•
feature of the river was its
yearly flooding
The Nile reached highest
point in Sept. and Oct.,
and left behind a deposit
of mud that created an
area of rich, fertile soil
several miles wide on both
sides of the river called the
“Black Land”
The deserts were called
the “Red Land”
The Nile = transportation,
communication, natural
defense
The Importance of Religion
• Egyptians were
•
•
polytheistic (Ra,
Osiris, Isis, Set,
Horus)
Major gods were
sun and land gods
(the natural world)
Had no word for
religion – just a
part of the entire
world order
Egyptian Government – The
Beginnings
• Menes – first
•
•
leader – united
upper and lower
Egypt - founded
the first dynasty
Around 3100 BC
Double crown
symbolizing both
kingdoms
Crown of Upper and Lower Egypt
The Old Kingdom
• 2700 – 2200 BC
• Title of Pharaoh is
•
•
•
used
Develop a
government
administration
Mummification
Pyramids
Pyramids – the Old Kingdom
• Burial place for
•
•
•
pharaoh
Rooms with supplies
for afterlife
Largest pyramid is at
Giza
Pyramid is the
symbol of the Old
Kingdom
The Middle Kingdom
• Period of Stability
•
•
•
between 2050 to 1652
BC
Conquered Nubia – land
of gold
Pharaohs take on
building projects such as
draining swampland
Ends with the invasion
of Egypt by the Hyksos
(people from Western
Asia)
The New Kingdom
• Hyksos teach Egyptians to use
•
•
•
•
•
bronze in farming tools and
weapons, and horse-drawn
chariots
New Kingdom was 1567 to
1085 BC
Buildings and military
campaigns
Conquer and occupy Palestine
and Syria
This is the kingdom of
Hatshepsut, Akhenaton,
Tutankhamen, and Ramses II
Collapses in 1085 BC
Building Projects
of Ramses II
The End of Egypt
• Dominated by Libyans,
•
Persian, Nubians, and
Macedonians (after
Alexander the Great)
Cleopatra tried to
reestablish independence
in the 1st century BC but
her involvement with
Rome and her suicide end
with Egypt becoming
simply another province
of Rome
Cities
• Egyptian Cities: Memphis,
•
•
•
Thebes, Akhetaten
Homes built of mud
bricks
Main temples built of
stone to important gods
and goddesses
Towns often named for
the important god
Writing
• Writing emerged
•
•
•
around 3000 BC
Hieroglyphics
Hieratic script
First carved in stone
and later written on
papyrus
Art, and Science
• Stylized form in
•
•
•
•
sculpting
Advances in math in
order to build, and
geometry
365-day calendar
(based on the
movement of the moon
and the star Sirius
Embalming
Medicine: splints,
bandages, compresses
Social Structure
• Society in a simple structure = a pyramid
Pharaoh
nobles & priests
Middle class, and merchants
Lower class: farmers, peasants, forced labor