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Gathering Information &
Scanning the Environment
Chapter Questions
• What are the components of a modern
marketing information system?
• What are useful internal records?
• What is involved in a marketing intelligence
• What are the key methods for tracking and
identifying opportunities in the macro
• What are some important macro environment
What is a
Marketing Information System (MIS)?
A marketing information system consists of
people, equipment, and procedures to gather,
sort, analyze, evaluate, and distribute needed,
timely, and accurate information to
marketing decision makers.
Information Needs Probes
• What decisions do you regularly make?
• What information do you need to make these
• What information do you regularly get?
• What special studies do you periodically
• What information would you want that you are
not getting now?
• What are the four most helpful improvements
that could be made in the present marketing
information system?
Internal Records and
Marketing Intelligence
Order-to-payment cycle
Sales information system
Databases, warehousing, data mining
Marketing intelligence system
Steps to Improve Marketing Intelligence
• Train sales force to scan for new developments
• Motivate channel members to share
Network externally
Utilize a customer advisory panel
Utilize government data sources
Collect customer feedback online
Purchase information
Sources of Competitive Information
• Independent customer goods and service review
• Distributor or sales agent feedback sites
• Combination sites offering customer reviews and
expert opinions
• Customer complaint sites
• Public blogs
Major Competitive Spheres
Market segment
Vertical channels
Dimensions that Define a Business
• Customer groups
• Customer needs
• Technology
Characteristics of SBUs
• It is a single business or collection of related
• It has its own set of competitors
• It has a leader responsible for strategic planning
and profitability
Ansoff’s Product-Market Expansion Grid
Market penetration strategy
Market development strategy
Product development strategy
Diversification strategy
Ansoff’s Product-Market Expansion Grid
Porter’s Generic Strategies
• Overall cost leadership
• Differentiation
• Focus
Categories of Marketing Alliances
Product or service alliance
Promotional alliance
Logistics alliances
Pricing collaborations
Needs and Trends
• Fads
• Un-predictable, short lived, and without social,
economic & political significance.
• Trends
• A direction or sequence of events that has some
momentum and durability.
• Megatrends
• Large social. Economic, political and technological
changes that are slow to form once in place, they
influence us for some time between seven and ten
years or longer.
Trends Shaping the Business Landscape
• Profound shifts in centers
of economic activity
• Increases in public-sector
• Change in consumer
• Technological
• Scarcity of well-trained
• Increase in demand for
natural resources
• Emergence of new global
industry structures
• Ubiquitous access to
• Management shifts from
art to science
• Increase in scrutiny of big
business practices
Environmental Forces
If the world were a village of 1,000 people it would
consist of:
520 Female
480 Male
330 Children
60 People over age 65
10 College Graduates
335 Illiterate Adults
Population and Demographics
• Population growth
• Population age mix
• Ethnic markets
• Educational groups
• Household patterns
• Geographical shifts
Economic Environment
• Income Distribution
• Savings, Debt, and Credit
Social-Cultural Environment
Views of themselves
Views of others
Views of organizations
Views of society
Views of nature
Views of the universe
Natural Environment
Shortage of raw materials
Increased energy costs
Anti-pollution pressures
Governmental protections
Technological Environment
Pace of change
Opportunities for innovation
Varying R&D budgets
Increased regulation of change
Political-Legal Environment
• Increase in business legislation
• To protect consumers from unfair business
Protect the interests of society from
powerful business behaviour
Charge businesses with the social costs
created by their products or production
May have the un-intended effect of
sapping initiative & retarding growth
 Marketing Management – A South Asian Perspective
by Philip Kotler, Kevin Lane Keller, Abraham Koshy &
Mithileshwar Jha, 13th Edition, Published by Pearson
Education, Inc.
 Strategic Marketing Management – Meeting The
Global Marketing Challenges by Carol H. Anderson &
Julian W. Vincze Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
 Principles of Advertising & IMC by Tom Duncan 2nd
Edition, Published by McGraw-Hill Irwin.
 Principles of Marketing by Philip Kotler & Gary Armstrong
Thirteenth Edition, Published by Prentice Hall
"Life is like a combination lock; your job is
to find the right numbers, in the right order
so you can have anything you want."
The End…