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Transcript
ETHNIC MARKETING: A
STRATEGY FOR
MARKETING PROGRAMS
TO DIVERSE AUDIENCES
Dallas L. Holmes EdD, USU Extension
Adapted from an article by Lisa A. Guion, Heather
Kent, and David C. Diehl, Florida State University
Cooperative Extension, 2010.
ETHNIC MARKETING
Marketing means publicizing your name, program
and services to your target audience.
 Ethnic marketing uses personal marketing
strategies that best reflect the values, biases and
beliefs of the ethnic audience you are targeting.

AMERICA:
MELTING POT OR TOSSED SALAD
Homogenous mass of
acclimatized people
Diverse mix of
individuals and
cultures
ETHNIC MARKETING STRATEGY

Because America is a
“tossed salad” society,
it is important to tailor
your marketing
strategies to match the
norms, values and
traditions of the group
you are targeting.

Three Steps for developing
an effective marketing
strategy:
1.
2.
3.
Consider ethnic diversity.
Determine the level of
ethnicity
Develop and implement your
ethnic marketing campaign.
STEP 1: CONSIDER ETHNIC
DIVERSITY

TO AVOID:
Lumping all the members of
your target audience into an
unidentifiable mass (Melting
pot mentality).
 Addressing all members of
the target audience with a
general marketing approach.


TO DO:
Value the cultural
uniqueness of your
target group.
 Value cooperation and
bridge-building with
community leaders and
other organizations
working within the
community.

STEP 1: CONSIDER ETHNIC
DIVERSITY

TO AVOID:
Considering diversity as
a matter of image
building—token
minorities in your
marketing campaigns.
 Interpreting diversity as
a matter of altruism
(charity for “those poor
people”)


TO DO:
Value the cultural beliefs,
symbols and practices of your
target group.
 Value linguistic differences, as
well as accents, practices and
social conduct.
 Value word-of-mouth &
interpersonal communication
to spread your message.

STEP 2: DETERMINING THE LEVEL OF
ETHNICITY OF YOUR TARGET GROUP
Depends on:
•Environmental
conditions (family
upbringing,
neighborhood ethnicity)
•Economic conditions
(education, income)
•Social conditions
(place of birth, length
of stay in U.S.)
STEP 2: DETERMINING THE LEVEL OF
ETHNICITY OF YOUR TARGET GROUP

People with a high degree of ethnicity are possibly:






First generation immigrants
Grew up outside of America
Not fluent in English, speak mostly native language
Speak with a heavy accent
Live in high-density ethnic areas
Higher level of ethnicity=Higher degree of ethnic marketing
STEP 2: DETERMINING THE LEVEL OF
ETHNICITY OF YOUR TARGET GROUP

People with a medium degree of ethnicity are
possibly:





Second generation or acculturated first generation
Spent ¼ to ½ of their lives in America
Are proficient in English and their native language
Speak with a light accent
Live in moderate ethnic-dense areas
STEP 2: DETERMINING THE LEVEL OF
ETHNICITY OF YOUR TARGET GROUP

People with a low degree of ethnicity are
possibly:





Second generation and onwards
Born and raised in America
Are bilingual, but prefer English
Speak with a neutral accent
Live in low ethnic-dense areas.
 The
group’s level of selfidentified ethnicity determines
how much ethnic marketing
strategy should be used.


With lower levels of ethnicity,
use more mainstream
marketing strategies.
With higher levels of ethnicity,
use more ethnic marketing
strategies.
STEP 3: LAUNCHING ETHNIC
MARKETING

Of course, we should tailor our marketing approach
to the target audience, but HOW do we know what
they will respond to?

Use the Three “I”s to plan your marketing strategy.
 Identify the communities
 Identify the values and beliefs
 Identify personal marketing strategies
STEP 3: LAUNCHING ETHNIC
MARKETING
THE THREE “I”S
Identify the communities the target group
comprises.
Identify the values and beliefs of the
community/communities.
Identify personal marketing strategies that match
the values and beliefs of the
community/communities you will be addressing.
STEP 3: LAUNCHING ETHNIC MARKETING
THE THREE “I”S
Example:
Identify
group:
African Americans.
STEP 3: LAUNCHING ETHNIC
MARKETING
THE THREE “I”S
Identify Values:
 Similar to contiguous
African cultures. Thus,
African American
communities differ from
mainstream American
culture.
 Value qualities like “telling
it like it is,” “seeing the
good as well as the bad”,
assertiveness and
speaking up.
Give importance to orally
transmitted information.
 Like to be represented.
 Receptive to
organizations that “give
something back to the
community”.
 Like to see a positive
image of their culture.
 View the world from an
Afrocentric standpoint

STEP 3: LAUNCHING ETHNIC
MARKETING
THE THREE “I”S
 Identify
Personal Marketing Strategies
Do not be pretentious.
Be sensitive about the authenticity of your message. Have
facts ready and be able to back them up.
 Have African American representatives present your message.
 Encourage your African American audiences to ask questions
about your programs. Do not mistake their assertiveness for
aggression. Let them discuss their doubts, they will tell you
whether they like or do not like something.


ETHNIC MARKETING TO ASIAN
AMERICANS
 Identify
group: Asian Americans.
ETHNIC MARKETING TO ASIAN AMERICANS
Identify Values of Asian Americans that may impact
marketing:
 High-context culture where non-verbal communication
(body language, use of silence) is very significant.
 Have a high level of education in some subgroups, like
Japanese, East Indians and Chinese.
 Consider family very important.
 Believe in subordination of younger to elder; hierarchical
family structure
 Value word-of-mouth messages from friends and
relations.
 Are uneasy with strangers.
 Give importance to the quality of a product first, followed
by price, service and convenience.
IDENTIFY PERSONAL STRATEGIES DEVELOPING
MARKETING MATERIALS FOR ASIAN AMERICANS:







Be subtle and polite when you try to send a message
across.
Please all the family members.
Remember that the oldest male member of the family
has the decision-making power. Also, give respect to the
elders by being courteous.
Have your message carried by the members of the
community.
Avoid those numbers and colors that are considered to
bring ill luck (for example, the number 4 and the color
black signify death in Chinese culture).
Make multiple visits to build a better rapport. Be formal
until you win the confidence of your audiences.
Make sure to offer quality programs that will do good to
the community.
ETHNIC MARKETING TO
HISPANICS/LATINOS
 Identify
group: Hispanic/Latinos
ETHNIC MARKETING TO HISPANICS/LATINOS
Identify Values of the Hispanic community that may impact marketing:









According to the U.S. Census (2000), Hispanics/Latinos are
predominantly younger, with a median age of 24 (Tharp, 2001).
Identify themselves in both individual and situational context; for
instance, at work, Hispanics may act more like mainstream
Americans.
Retained Spanish language. Spanish is a high-context, indirect
language, with a lot of importance given to nonverbal
communication. Choice of pronouns depends on the formality of a
relationship.
Give importance to family and the church (mostly Roman Catholic
Church)
Men and women play traditional roles in the family, with the husband
enjoying the decision-making power.
Value children and extended family (Zuniga, 2001).
Prefer to be informed by friends or Hispanic/Latino associations.
Are brand-loyal. If satisfied, Hispanics/Latinos stick to a particular
brand of product or program forever (Rossman, 1999, Tharp, 2001).
Are optimistic. One buzzword is “simpotia,” which means “keep
everyone happy.”
IDENTIFY PERSONAL STRATEGIES, FOR
DEVELOPING MARKETING MATERIALS FOR THE
AMERICAN HISPANICS/LATINOS







Use informal Spanish. Give detailed information and use visual
images. Please note: just as not all English-speaking people
have high literacy levels, not all Hispanics/Latinos have high
Spanish literacy levels.
Depending on the place or situation, speak in either English or
Spanish or in both English and Spanish. Have a neutral accent
and appearance.
Be aware of the fact that Spanish is a high-context language. Be
indirect and careful while using pronouns. Use humor and
vignettes with Hispanic/Latino characters in them.
Take your marketing to churches or family gatherings.
Please the family. Remember that the man of the family is the
key decision-maker. Also, have a marketing campaign that
includes benefits for the entire family.
Use testimonials from other Hispanics/Latinos who have
benefited from your program.
Apply extensive relationship marketing. Show how your program
will make their lives even better.
ETHNIC MARKETING TO NATIVE
AMERICANS
 Identify
group: Native Americans
ETHNIC MARKETING TO NATIVE AMERICANS
Identify Values of Native American that may impact marketing:
 Identity: label themselves in terms of the group (tribe).
 Spirituality: provides consciousness, meaning and wholeness
(Yellow Bird, 2001)
 Accept the group (tribal) leaders as the key decision makers.
 Sharing and cooperation: family and the group take
precedence over the individual (Sue & Sue, 1990).
 Harmony with nature, accept the environment and nature (Sue
& Sue, 1990).
 Like visuals and oral communication.
 Think storytelling is an important tool to pass on information.
 Give importance to credibility and honesty.
 Want to get rid of stereotyped images of their culture.
 Like to be heard. Native Americans like to be given an
opportunity to talk about their experiences, problems and
suggestions.
IDENTIFY PERSONAL STRATEGIES FOR
DEVELOPING MARKETING MATERIALS FOR
AMERICANS







NATIVE
Identify the group (tribal) leader and seek his guidance.
Please the group (tribe) by addressing and satisfying all the
members of the group (tribe).
Use bright and colorful visual images.
Use stories/testimonials to drive home the point you want to
make with your Native American audiences. For example, tell
stories of how your program has helped other Native
Americans.
Provide facts to show how your program will benefit the
community. Establish your credibility with facts and figures
(Cultural Relevance and Diversity, 2001).
Balance modern images with traditional images to avoid
stereotyping.
Ask for their participation. “Ask what they want, rather than
being told what they need” (Cultural Relevance and Diversity,
2001).
REFERENCES
Guion, L.A., Goddard, H.W., Broadwater, G.,
Chattaraj, S., & Sullivan-Lytle, S. (2003).
Strengthening programs to reach diverse
audiences. Gainesville, FL: Florida Cooperative
Extension, University of Florida.
 Tharp, M.C. (2001). Marketing and consumer
identity in multicultural America. Thousand Oaks,
CA: Sage Publications
 Strengthening Programs to Reach Diverse
Audiences – A Six Part Curriculum to work
Effectively with Ethically Diverse Audiences, Univ.
Florida IFAS
