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Chapter 13
Inequalities of Race and Ethnicity
Key Terms
An inbreeding population that develops
distinctive physical characteristics that are
An ideology based on the belief that an
observable, supposedly inherited trait is a mark
of inferiority that justifies discriminatory
treatment of people with that trait.
ethnic group
A population that has a sense of group identity
based on shared ancestry and distinctive
cultural patterns.
minority group
A population that, because of its members’
physical or cultural characteristics, is singled
out from others in the society for differential
and unequal treatment.
State-sponsored mass killing explicitly
designed to completely exterminate a
population deemed to be racially or ethnically
different and threatening to the dominant
The forcible removal of one population from a
territory claimed by another population.
The ownership of one racial, ethnic, or
politically determined group by another group
that has complete control over the enslaved
The ecological and institutional separation of
races or ethnic groups.
de jure segregation
Segregation that is created by formal legal
sanctions that prohibit certain groups from
interacting with others or that place limits on
such interactions.
de facto segregation
Segregation that is created and maintained by
unwritten norms
Jim Crow
The system of formal and informal segregation
that existed in the United States from the late
1860s to the early 1970s.
A pattern of intergroup relations in which a
minority group is absorbed into the majority
population and eventually disappears as a
distinct group.
ethnic stratification
The ranking of ethnic groups in a social
hierarchy on the basis of each group’s
similarity to the dominant group.
pluralistic society
A society in which different ethnic and racial
groups are able to maintain their own cultures
and lifestyles while gaining equality in the
institutions of the larger society.
An inflexible image of the members of a
particular group that is held without regard to
whether or not it is true.
An attitude that prejudges a person on the
basis of a real or imagined characteristic of a
group of which that person is a member.
Behavior that treats people unfairly on the
basis of their group membership.
institutional discrimination
The systematic exclusion of people from equal
participation in a particular institution because
of their group membership.
ethnic nationalism
The belief that one’s own ethnic group
constitutes a distinct people whose culture is
and should be separate from that of the larger
A convenient target for hostility.
The psychological process whereby we
attribute to other people behaviors and
attitudes that we are unwilling to accept in
internal colonialism
A theory of racial and ethnic inequality that
suggests that some minorities are essentially
colonial peoples within the larger society.