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Defining Race and Racism Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice (1978) • “Any theory which involves the claim that racial or ethnic groups are inherently superior or inferior, thus simply implying that some would be entitled to dominate or eliminate others, presumed to be inferior, or which bases value judgments on racial differentiation, has no scientific foundation and is contrary to the moral and ethical principles of humanity” Race • Classification of human beings based on genetic differences(skin color, hair texture, observable features) • Race is a social construct that reflects the experience of society at a given time Ethnic Group • People who possess a distinctive, shared culture(ancestry, language, folklore, traditions, food, music, etc.. And a sense of identity(peoplehood) • Does not necessarily have to do with racial characteristics Majority Group • Based on their possession of certain valued physical or cultural traits - and more importantly on their possession of effective power - dominate economic, political, and educational institutions and can structure societal activities to their own BEST advantage. Minority Group • Groups whose nonvalued physical or cultural traits - and, more importantly, whose lack of effective power block them from control over important societal institutions Racial Discrimination • Unfair or unequal treatment of members of some specific group (usually members of a minority group by members of a majority group) • Power is a necessary precondition, for it depends on the ability to give or withhold social benefits, facilities, services, and opportunities to those of a diff. Race. Institutional Racism • A system of procedures or patterns in all walks of life: education, housing, businesses, employment, professional associations, religion, media, etc., whose effect is to perpetuate and maintain the power, influence and well-being of one group over another. Prejudice • Way that certain people or groups think about one another in terms of fixed and rigid mental issues. • Most often based on information and beliefs that are irrational or negative and may predispose people to act negatively toward the object of their prejudice. Stereotypes • Oversimplified and categorical beliefs in which all members of some particular group are assumed to possess specific traits that distinguish them from all members of other groups. Ethnocentrism • The tendency to believe that the norms and values of one’s own culture are superior to those of others, and to use these norms as a standard when evaluating all other cultures. • Often referred to as “culture centeredness” Assimilation • Refers to the process by which minority ethnic and racial groups are absorbed into the mainstream sociocultural system, eventually losing their distinctive cultural and physical identities. • Changes in beliefs, values, behaviors, and attitudes. Pluralism • Refers to the retention of minority group identities and diversities, with individual racial and ethnic groups(majority and minorities) accomodating themselves to one another’s individual differences.