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Transcript
Microbiology 205 – Spring 2008 Final Exam Study Guide
REMEMBER – THIS IS A GENERAL GUIDE – MORE DETAILED INFORMATION CAB BE
OBTAINED FROM PREVIOUS STUDY GUIDES AND FROM YOUR 3 IN CLASS EXAMS.
Chapter 1: Be familiar with examples of important scientists in the history of microbiology
and their contributions that were heavily discussed throughout the class and on exams.
Chapter 3. Understand the principles of microscopy, the types of microscopy that are
utilized to identify specific organisms and internal organelles, and know examples of the
common stains performed in lab.
Chapter 4. Know the basic cell types and the shapes and arrangement of the
microorganisms. Know the structure of a prokaryotic cell and understand the important
differences between the Gram + and Gram – organisms. How does this structure relate to
function and susceptibility to various antibiotics? Be able to compare and contrast a
eukaryotic cell with a prokaryotic cell. Know the function played by structures or cell
organelles.
Chapter 5. Know the general ways that microorganisms are classified into distinct
categories. Be familiar with the basic life cycles covered in class. What is a dichotomous
key? What are the 3 main domains of life? Be familiar with examples in the 4 kingdoms.
Chapter 6. Know the general characteristics of viruses. How do they compare to the other
microorganisms discussed in class? How are viruses classified and what does the + or –
sense refer to? How do these classifications relate to viral function? Understand viral
replication and the corresponding growth curve. Know how retroviruses are different from
other +RNA viruses. Understand how prions fit into these concepts and understand how
viruses cause cancer.
Chapter 7. Understand how prokaryotic cells divide and grow. Know the phases of growth
and how those phases relate to susceptibility to anti-microbial compounds. How can you
measure bacterial growth? Are there specific techniques to distinguish between live and
dead bacteria? Understand the factors that affect microbial growth. Understand how
microorganisms are cultured.
Chapter 8. Be familiar with the concept of metabolism. How catabolic and anabolic
reactions work together? What is the role of ATP and enzymes, and co-enzymes in
metabolism? Be familiar with the amounts of ATP formed during aerobic respiration or
fermentation?
Chapter 9. Understand the heredity of all living things – this includes DNA replication and
protein synthesis. Understand the regulation of these functions, especially in the context of
feedback inhibition, enzyme induction (lac operon) and enzyme repression (trp operon).
Know the common types of mutations and what effect they have on microorganism health
(for example, a mutation may be silent or fatal). Understand why some mutations are silent.
What are the 3 main types of gene transfer in prokaryotes and what is the significance of
each type? Understand all 3 and be able to compare and contrast these 3 mechanisms of
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gene transfer. Understand what plasmids are and know specific examples of plasmids that
were discussed in class. What is a prophage? What is lysogeny?
Chapter 11. Understand what it means to be a parasite. Also understand other terms such
as biological vector and know examples of these within the context of the organisms we
covered in class. One of the important life cycles we discussed was malaria caused by a
specific kind of organism. It is important to know these organisms and understand the
malaria life cycle as discussed in class. What causes the pathology in humans? Know
general information about pathogenic fungi. Know the two types of pathogenic helminths.
What is important in a schistosome lifecycle? Understand how most helminths cause
disease. Know some examples of arthropod vectors discussed in class. What diseases do
they cause?
Chapter 12.Understand the general terms sterilization and disinfection and how they relate
to the control of microbial growth. What does it mean to be bacteriostatic? Bacteriocidal?
Antiseptic? What is the phenol coefficient?
Chapter 12. Understand the important concepts of antimicrobial chemotherapy. What is
selective toxicity and why is it important? What are the common modes of action of
antimicrobial agents and how do microorganisms avoid/evade these modes of action? What
is a beta-lactam ring and why is it important? What is beta-lactamase? How do
microorganisms develop resistance to antimicrobial agents? Know specific examples of
antimicrobial agents as they relate to the 5 main modes of action. Be able to apply this
knowledge to the treatment of specific infections discussed in class.
Chapter 13. Understand the terms Infection, Infectious, Disease, Pathogen, Pathogenecity,
Virulence. Understand the importance of the normal flora. Understand how microorganisms
cause disease and know the stages of infectious disease. What is an acute disease?
Chronic disease? Superinfection?
Chapter 14. Be familiar with the transmission of a disease: (provide examples and be able
to match them: Contact (direct, indirect, and droplet transmission), Vehicle (airborne,
waterborne, foodborne), Vector (mechanical and biological). Understand what nosocomial
infections are and why they occur.
Chapter 14 and 15. Know the non-specific (innate) and the specific (adaptive) defenses of
the human body. Know the cellular components of each. Know the molecular components
of each. Describe how complement proteins work. (Include what complement proteins go
with what action). Describe the origins of interferon alpha, beta and gamma and their roles
in immune function. What are the three different complement pathways and what are they
activated by? How is fever beneficial? Describe how fever is initiated. Describe the steps of
inflammation, its advantages and disadvantages. Finally, you need to have a complete
understanding of how the innate and adaptive immune system works together to keep us
alive.
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Chapter 15. Immunity
1. Differentiate between non specific and specific immunity.
2. Give examples of non-specific immunity (physical and chemical barriers as well as
cellular and molecular)
3. What is specific immunity?
4. Be familiar with the role of each WBC (both specific and non-specific).
5. Be familiar with Figure 15.1. They describe 5 steps involved in the development,
recognition and lymphocyte response.
6. Be familiar with the differences between T and B cells.
7. Be able to recognize cells (those described in class) based on unique surface markers
(CDs).
8. Be familiar with the clonal selection theory. What are its implications?
9. Be familiar with the basic structure of the antibody molecule.
10. Based on unique heavy chains, there are 5 classes of antibodies. Be familiar with at
least one property for each antibody class.
11. Be familiar with the concept of antigen, hapten, and epitope. What makes a molecule to
be a good antigen?
12. What is necessary for recognition of antigens by T cells?
13. What are the three major types of antigen presenting cells? What type of MHCs are they
associated with? What is their function?
14. What is the only antibody that can cross the placenta?
15. What does humoral immunity work best against, Extracellular or intracellular
organisms? How does it work?
16. What are the three ways humoral immunity works?
17. Differentiate between the quantity and type of antibody seen in a primary response vs. a
secondary response. Explain why this makes sense for the responses to be set up this
way.
18. What is the time frame for the primary response? Secondary response? Which is faster
and why?
19. What is the first antibody produced in response to an infection?
20. What form does IgM take when its secreted?
21. What type of MHC do T cells recognize?
22. What are the two classes of MHCs? Differentiate between the two of them.
23. What does cell mediated immunity work best against intracellular organisms or
extracellular? Explain why?
24. What types of T cells are there? How does each interact with MHC? What is the role of
each (how does each work)?
25. What is needed for successful antigen presentation between a macrophage and a T
cell?
26. What determines the type Th response?
27. What are the two possible Thresponses? How do they differentiate (which type of
response (humoral or cell mediated) do they activate?
28. What differentiates a Th from a Tc cell?
29. Explain how Tc cells work (from antigen presentation to cell lysis)
30. What do Th cells use to drive the immune response? What do Tc cells use to drive the
immune response?
31. Explain the following types of specific immunity; active, passive, natural and artificial.
Which generate memory? Give examples of each.
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35. What are the body’s nonspecific defenses against viral infection?
36. Draw and label an antibody.
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